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Apophis Planetary Defense Campaign

Reddy, Vishnu and Kelley, Michael S. and Dotson, Jessie and Farnocchia, Davide and Erasmus, Nicolas and Polishook, David and Masiero, Joseph and Benner, Lance A. M. and Bauer, James and Alarcon, Miguel R. and Balam, David and Bamberger, Daniel and Bell, David and Barnardi, Fabrizio and Bressi, Terry H. and Brozović, Marina and Brucker, Melissa J. and Buzzi, Luca and Cano, Juan and Cantillo, David and Cennamo, Ramona and Chastel, Serge and Chingis, Omarov and Choi, Young-Jun and Christensen, Eric and Denneau, Larry and Dróżdż, Marek and Elenin, Leonid and Erece, Orhan and Faggioli, Laura and Falco, Carmelo and Glamazda, Dmitry and Graziani, Filippo and Heinze, Aren N. and Holman, Matthew J. and Ivanov, Alexander and Jacques, Cristovao and Janse van Rensburg, Petro and Kaiser, Galina and Kamiński, Krzysztof and Kamińska, Monika K. and Kaplan, Murat and Kim, Dong-Heun and Kim, Myung-Jin and Kiss, Csaba and Kokina, Tatiana and Kuznetsov, Eduard and Larsen, Jeffrey A. and Lee, Hee-Jae and Lees, Robert C. and de León, Julia and Licandro, Javier and Mainzer, Amy and Marciniak, Anna and Marsset, Michael and Mastaler, Ron A. and Mathias, Donovan L. and McMillan, Robert S. and Medeiros, Hissa and Micheli, Marco and Mokhnatkin, Artem and Moon, Hong-Kyu and Morate, David and Naidu, Shantanu P. and Nastasi, Alessandro and Novichonok, Artem and Ogłoza, Waldemar and Pál, András and Pérez-Toledo, Fabricio and Perminov, Alexander and Petrescu, Elisabeta and Popescu, Marcel and Read, Mike T. and Reichart, Daniel E. and Reva, Inna and Roh, Dong-Goo and Rumpf, Clemens and Satpathy, Akash and Schmalz, Sergei and Scotti, James V. and Serebryanskiy, Aleksander and Serra-Ricart, Miquel and Sonbas, Eda and Szakáts, Robert and Taylor, Patrick A. and Tonry, John L. and Tubbiolo, Andrew F. and Veres, Peter and Wainscoat, Richard and Warner, Elizabeth and Weiland, Henry J. and Wells, Guy and Weryk, Robert and Wheeler, Lorien F. and Wiebe, Yulia and Yim, Hong-Suh and Żejmo, Michał and Zhornichenko, Anastasiya and Zoła, Stanisław and Michel, Patrick (2022) Apophis Planetary Defense Campaign. Planetary Science Journal, 3 (5). Art. No. 123. ISSN 2632-3338. doi:10.3847/psj/ac66eb.

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We describe results of a planetary defense exercise conducted during the close approach to Earth by the near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis during 2020 December–2021 March. The planetary defense community has been conducting observational campaigns since 2017 to test the operational readiness of the global planetary defense capabilities. These community-led global exercises were carried out with the support of NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office and the International Asteroid Warning Network. The Apophis campaign is the third in our series of planetary defense exercises. The goal of this campaign was to recover, track, and characterize Apophis as a potential impactor to exercise the planetary defense system including observations, hypothetical risk assessment and risk prediction, and hazard communication. Based on the campaign results, we present lessons learned about our ability to observe and model a potential impactor. Data products derived from astrometric observations were available for inclusion in our risk assessment model almost immediately, allowing real-time updates to the impact probability calculation and possible impact locations. An early NEOWISE diameter measurement provided a significant improvement in the uncertainty on the range of hypothetical impact outcomes. The availability of different characterization methods such as photometry, spectroscopy, and radar provided robustness to our ability to assess the potential impact risk.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Reddy, Vishnu0000-0002-7743-3491
Kelley, Michael S.0000-0002-6702-7676
Dotson, Jessie0000-0003-4206-5649
Farnocchia, Davide0000-0003-0774-884X
Erasmus, Nicolas0000-0002-9986-3898
Polishook, David0000-0002-6977-3146
Masiero, Joseph0000-0003-2638-720X
Bauer, James0000-0001-9542-0953
Alarcon, Miguel R.0000-0002-8134-2592
Balam, David0000-0003-2032-4320
Bamberger, Daniel0000-0002-9138-2942
Brucker, Melissa J.0000-0002-2079-179X
Cennamo, Ramona0000-0003-1121-9393
Choi, Young-Jun0000-0001-6060-5851
Denneau, Larry0000-0002-7034-148X
Dróżdż, Marek0000-0001-9587-1615
Elenin, Leonid0000-0001-9336-9648
Erece, Orhan0000-0002-9723-6823
Faggioli, Laura0000-0002-5447-432X
Graziani, Filippo0000-0002-3371-3598
Heinze, Aren N.0000-0003-3313-4921
Holman, Matthew J.0000-0002-1139-4880
Jacques, Cristovao0000-0002-3100-4632
Janse van Rensburg, Petro0000-0001-8764-7365
Kamińska, Monika K.0000-0001-8049-196X
Kaplan, Murat0000-0003-2595-5463
Kim, Myung-Jin0000-0002-4787-6769
Kiss, Csaba0000-0002-8722-6875
Kuznetsov, Eduard0000-0002-9760-0242
Lee, Hee-Jae0000-0002-6839-075X
de León, Julia0000-0002-0696-0411
Licandro, Javier0000-0002-9214-337X
Mainzer, Amy0000-0002-7578-3885
Marciniak, Anna0000-0002-1627-9611
Marsset, Michael0000-0001-8617-2425
Mathias, Donovan L.0000-0003-4750-3003
McMillan, Robert S.0000-0002-2090-1506
Medeiros, Hissa0000-0002-3404-324X
Micheli, Marco0000-0001-7895-8209
Mokhnatkin, Artem0000-0001-8330-6061
Moon, Hong-Kyu0000-0001-5666-9967
Naidu, Shantanu P.0000-0003-4439-7014
Ogłoza, Waldemar0000-0002-6293-9940
Pál, András0000-0001-5449-2467
Perminov, Alexander0000-0002-6746-0533
Popescu, Marcel0000-0001-8585-204X
Reichart, Daniel E.0000-0002-5060-3673
Reva, Inna0000-0001-9944-8398
Roh, Dong-Goo0000-0001-6104-4304
Rumpf, Clemens0000-0003-2530-4046
Satpathy, Akash0000-0001-5766-8819
Schmalz, Sergei0000-0001-5783-3888
Serebryanskiy, Aleksander0000-0002-4313-7416
Serra-Ricart, Miquel0000-0002-2394-0711
Sonbas, Eda0000-0002-6909-192X
Szakáts, Robert0000-0002-1698-605X
Taylor, Patrick A.0000-0002-2493-943X
Tonry, John L.0000-0003-2858-9657
Veres, Peter0000-0002-2149-9846
Wainscoat, Richard0000-0002-1341-0952
Warner, Elizabeth0000-0003-1147-4474
Wells, Guy0000-0002-6667-6535
Weryk, Robert0000-0002-0439-9341
Wheeler, Lorien F.0000-0002-3298-3721
Yim, Hong-Suh0000-0001-5484-4741
Żejmo, Michał0000-0001-5836-9503
Zoła, Stanisław0000-0003-3609-382X
Michel, Patrick0000-0002-0884-1993
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 December 22; revised 2022 April 3; accepted 2022 April 5; published 2022 May 31. The Apophis campaign was conducted as part of the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN). IAWN is supported by the Planetary Data System (PDS) Small Bodies Node (SBN) at the University of Maryland College Park. The work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was performed under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This material is based in part on work supported by NASA under the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs. This publication makes use of data products from NEOWISE, which is a joint project of the University of Arizona and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. Pan-STARRS is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 80NSSC18K0971 issued through the SSO Near Earth Object Observations Program. Part of this work was supported by the Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education via the State Assignment Project FEUZ-2020-0030. Part of the observations performed with the Zeiss-1000 telescope of the Terskol Observatory Shared Research Centre of the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We are extremely grateful to the IRTF and GTC Observatories' night and day staff for their overwhelming support and assistance that made the observations possible. D.P. & M.M. are thankful to Richard Binzel and Francesca DeMeo for sharing their experience and wisdom while planning and conducting the measurements. D.P. is grateful to the Israeli Space Agency. M.M. was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. 80NSSC18K0849 issued through the Planetary Astronomy Program. J.d.L., J.L., and M.P. acknowledge financial support from the NEOROCKS project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 870403. This work was funded by NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office. Supercomputing resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center. This work has made use of data from the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project. ATLAS is primarily funded to search for NEAs through NASA grants NN12AR55G, 80NSSC18K0284, and 80NSSC18K1575; byproducts of the NEA search include images and catalogs from the survey area. The ATLAS science products have been made possible through the contributions of the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, the Queen's University Belfast, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. This work is partially supported by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). Spacewatch is supported by NASA/NEOO grants and the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL. We thank TUBITAK National Observatory for partial support in using the T100 telescope with project number 20CT100-1743. This work was supported by the Moscow Center of Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, Agreement with the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, No. 075-15-2019-1623. This work made extensive use of Python, specifically the NumPy (Harris et al. 2020), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), and SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020b) packages.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Russia)FEUZ-2020-0030
Israeli Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)870403
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)20CT100-1743
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Russia)075-15-2019-1623
Subject Keywords:Near-Earth objects; Asteroids; Small Solar System bodies; Close encounters
Issue or Number:5
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Near-Earth objects (1092); Asteroids (72); Small Solar System bodies (1469); Close encounters (255)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220608-849658000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Vishnu Reddy et al 2022 Planet. Sci. J. 3 123
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115092
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jun 2022 21:20
Last Modified:08 Jun 2022 21:20

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