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Shallow Calcium Carbonate Cycling in the North Pacific Ocean

Subhas, Adam V. and Dong, Sijia and Naviaux, John D. and Rollins, Nick E. and Ziveri, Patrizia and Gray, William and Rae, James W. B. and Liu, Xuewu and Byrne, Robert H. and Chen, Sang and Moore, Christopher and Martell‐Bonet, Loraine and Steiner, Zvi and Antler, Gilad and Hu, Huanting and Lunstrum, Abby and Hou, Yi and Kemnitz, Nathaniel and Stutsman, Johnny and Pallacks, Sven and Dugenne, Mathilde and Quay, Paul D. and Berelson, William M. and Adkins, Jess F. (2022) Shallow Calcium Carbonate Cycling in the North Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36 (5). Art. No. e2022GB007388. ISSN 0886-6236. doi:10.1029/2022gb007388.

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The cycling of biologically produced calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) in the ocean is a fundamental component of the global carbon cycle. Here, we present experimental determinations of in situ coccolith and foraminiferal calcite dissolution rates. We combine these rates with solid phase fluxes, dissolved tracers, and historical data to constrain the alkalinity cycle in the shallow North Pacific Ocean. The in situ dissolution rates of coccolithophores demonstrate a nonlinear dependence on saturation state. Dissolution rates of all three major calcifying groups (coccoliths, foraminifera, and aragonitic pteropods) are too slow to explain the patterns of both CaCO₃ sinking flux and alkalinity regeneration in the North Pacific. Using a combination of dissolved and solid-phase tracers, we document a significant dissolution signal in seawater supersaturated for calcite. Driving CaCO₃ dissolution with a combination of ambient saturation state and oxygen consumption simultaneously explains solid-phase CaCO₃ flux profiles and patterns of alkalinity regeneration across the entire N. Pacific basin. We do not need to invoke the presence of carbonate phases with higher solubilities. Instead, biomineralization and metabolic processes intimately associate the acid (CO₂) and the base (CaCO₃) in the same particles, driving the coupled shallow remineralization of organic carbon and CaCO₃. The linkage of these processes likely occurs through a combination of dissolution due to zooplankton grazing and microbial aerobic respiration within degrading particle aggregates. The coupling of these cycles acts as a major filter on the export of both organic and inorganic carbon to the deep ocean.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Information ItemData ItemData ItemData ItemData
Subhas, Adam V.0000-0002-7688-6624
Dong, Sijia0000-0002-5811-9333
Naviaux, John D.0000-0002-0681-3163
Ziveri, Patrizia0000-0002-5576-0301
Gray, William0000-0001-5608-7836
Rae, James W. B.0000-0003-3904-2526
Liu, Xuewu0000-0003-2896-3063
Byrne, Robert H.0000-0003-0726-0131
Chen, Sang0000-0001-8941-0791
Moore, Christopher0000-0003-3210-4878
Martell‐Bonet, Loraine0000-0002-8546-8061
Steiner, Zvi0000-0002-9584-4956
Antler, Gilad0000-0002-6865-5412
Hu, Huanting0000-0003-4662-5375
Lunstrum, Abby0000-0002-6176-3445
Hou, Yi0000-0002-0846-8615
Stutsman, Johnny0000-0002-1177-9393
Pallacks, Sven0000-0002-8215-0007
Dugenne, Mathilde0000-0002-9316-1473
Quay, Paul D.0000-0001-5147-0289
Berelson, William M.0000-0002-1526-3802
Adkins, Jess F.0000-0002-3174-5190
Additional Information:© 2022. American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 17 May 2022; Version of Record online: 17 May 2022; Accepted manuscript online: 06 May 2022; Manuscript accepted: 28 April 2022; Manuscript revised: 18 April 2022; Manuscript received: 14 March 2022. This work was funded by NSF OCE-1220301 to W.B., NSF OCE-1220600 to J.F.A., and startup funding for A.V.S. The authors thank the crew of the R/V Kilo Moana for their support. The authors thank Dan McCorkle for helpful comments and discussions over the course of this paper, along with the constructive feedback from Jim Bishop, Phoebe Lam, and six anonymous reviewers. The authors acknowledge that the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is located on, and has benefited directly from, the traditional and unceded lands of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe. The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this study. Data Availability Statement: The author list represents the entire science party of the CDisK-IV cruise, with the exception of PDQ who contributed GOSHIP data. All authors contributed to data collection and the final manuscript. Work was conceived by JFA, WB, AVS, SD, and JN. Data was analyzed by AVS, JFA, WB, and SD. The manuscript was written by AVS with contributions from all coauthors. Data sets can be found on BCO-DMO including dissolution rate experiments (, sediment traps (, McLane pumps (, and bottle data including full carbonate chemistry, nutrients, density, AOU, and saturation state (
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:calcium carbonate; dissolution; carbon cycle
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220609-300102500
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Official Citation:Subhas, A. V., Dong, S., Naviaux, J. D., Rollins, N. E., Ziveri, P., Gray, W., et al. (2022). Shallow calcium carbonate cycling in the North Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36, e2022GB007388.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115109
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Jun 2022 17:33
Last Modified:13 Jun 2022 17:33

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