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In Search of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterparts with the Zwicky Transient Facility

Ahumada, Tomás and Anand, Shreya and Coughlin, Michael W. and Andreoni, Igor and Kool, Erik C. and Kumar, Harsh and Reusch, Simeon and Sagués-Carracedo, Ana and Stein, Robert and Cenko, S. Bradley and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Singer, Leo P. and Dunwoody, Rachel and Mangan, Joseph and Bhalerao, Varun and Bulla, Mattia and Burns, Eric and Graham, Matthew J. and Kaplan, David L. and Perley, Daniel and Almualla, Mouza and Bloom, Joshua S. and Cunningham, Virginia and De, Kishalay and Gatkine, Pradip and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Karambelkar, Viraj and Kong, Albert K. H. and Yao, Yuhan and Anupama, G. C. and Barway, Sudhanshu and Ghosh, Shaon and Itoh, Ryosuke and McBreen, Sheila and Bellm, Eric C. and Fremling, Christoffer and Laher, Russ R. and Mahabal, Ashish A. and Riddle, Reed L. and Rosnet, Philippe and Rusholme, Ben and Smith, Roger and Sollerman, Jesper and Bissaldi, Elisabetta and Fletcher, Corinne and Hamburg, Rachel and Mailyan, Bagrat and Malacaria, Christian and Roberts, Oliver (2022) In Search of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterparts with the Zwicky Transient Facility. Astrophysical Journal, 932 (1). Art. No. 40. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac6c29.

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The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) triggers on-board in response to ∼40 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) per year; however, their large localization regions have made the search for optical counterparts a challenging endeavour. We have developed and executed an extensive program with the wide field of view of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) camera, mounted on the Palomar 48 inch Oschin telescope (P48), to perform target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations on 10 Fermi-GBM SGRBs during 2018 and 2020–2021. Bridging the large sky areas with small field-of-view optical telescopes in order to track the evolution of potential candidates, we look for the elusive SGRB afterglows and kilonovae (KNe) associated with these high-energy events. No counterpart has yet been found, even though more than 10 ground-based telescopes, part of the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) network, have taken part in these efforts. The candidate selection procedure and the follow-up strategy have shown that ZTF is an efficient instrument for searching for poorly localized SGRBs, retrieving a reasonable number of candidates to follow up and showing promising capabilities as the community approaches the multi-messenger era. Based on the median limiting magnitude of ZTF, our searches would have been able to retrieve a GW170817-like event up to ∼200 Mpc and SGRB afterglows to z = 0.16 or 0.4, depending on the assumed underlying energy model. Future ToOs will expand the horizon to z = 0.2 and 0.7, respectively.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ahumada, Tomás0000-0002-2184-6430
Anand, Shreya0000-0003-3768-7515
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Kool, Erik C.0000-0002-7252-3877
Kumar, Harsh0000-0003-0871-4641
Reusch, Simeon0000-0002-7788-628X
Sagués-Carracedo, Ana0000-0002-3498-2167
Stein, Robert0000-0003-2434-0387
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Dunwoody, Rachel0000-0003-3248-5447
Bhalerao, Varun0000-0002-6112-7609
Bulla, Mattia0000-0002-8255-5127
Burns, Eric0000-0002-2942-3379
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Kaplan, David L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Perley, Daniel0000-0001-8472-1996
Almualla, Mouza0000-0002-4694-7123
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Cunningham, Virginia0000-0003-2292-0441
De, Kishalay0000-0002-0786-7307
Gatkine, Pradip0000-0002-1955-2230
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Karambelkar, Viraj0000-0003-2758-159X
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Anupama, G. C.0000-0003-3533-7183
Barway, Sudhanshu0000-0002-3927-5402
Ghosh, Shaon0000-0001-9901-6253
Itoh, Ryosuke0000-0002-1183-8955
McBreen, Sheila0000-0002-1477-618X
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Mahabal, Ashish A.0000-0003-2242-0244
Riddle, Reed L.0000-0002-0387-370X
Rosnet, Philippe0000-0002-6099-7565
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Smith, Roger0000-0001-7062-9726
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Bissaldi, Elisabetta0000-0001-9935-8106
Fletcher, Corinne0000-0002-0186-3313
Hamburg, Rachel0000-0003-0761-6388
Mailyan, Bagrat0000-0002-2531-3703
Malacaria, Christian0000-0002-0380-0041
Roberts, Oliver0000-0002-7150-9061
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 March 21; revised 2022 April 21; accepted 2022 May 1; published 2022 June 14. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. AST-1440341 and AST-2034437 and a collaboration including current partners Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Trinity College Dublin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IN2P3, University of Warwick, Ruhr University Bochum, Northwestern University and former partners the University of Washington, Los Alamos National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK) and University of Sydney (Australia). T.A. and H.K. thank the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; their participation in the program has benefited this work. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. M.W.C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation with grant Nos. PHY-2010970 and OAC-2117997. S.A. acknowledges support from the GROWTH PIRE grant No. 1545949. A.S.C. acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment, funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, project number 2016-06012. M.B. acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council (Reg. no. 2020-03330). S.R. acknowledges support by the Helmholtz Weizmann Research School on Multimessenger Astronomy, funded through the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association, DESY, the Weizmann Institute, the Humboldt University of Berlin, and the University of Potsdam. ECK acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, under project number 2016-06012, and support from The Wenner-Gren Foundations. P.R. acknowledges the support received from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche of the French government through the program Investissements d’Avenir” (16-IDEX-0001 CAP 20-25) The material is based on work supported by NASA under award No. 80GSFC17M0002. Based on observations obtained at the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's NOIRLab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini Observatory partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). The observations were obtained as part of Gemini Director's Discretionary Program GN-2021A-Q-102. The Gemini data were processed using DRAGONS (Data Reduction for Astronomy from Gemini Observatory North and South). This work was enabled by observations made from the Gemini North telescope, located within the Maunakea Science Reserve and adjacent to the summit of Maunakea. We are grateful for the privilege of observing the Universe from a place that is unique in both its astronomical quality and its cultural significance. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant No. 12540303 (PI: Graham). These results also made use of Lowell Observatory's Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT), formerly the Discovery Channel Telescope. Lowell operates the LDT in partnership with Boston University, Northern Arizona University, the University of Maryland and the University of Toledo. Partial support of the LDT was provided by Discovery Communications. LMI was built by Lowell Observatory using funds from the National Science Foundation (AST-1005313). The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1106171. GIT is a 70 cm telescope with a 0.°7 field of view, set up by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) with funding from DST-SERB and IUSSTF. It is located at the Indian Astronomical Observatory, operated by IIA. We acknowledge funding by the IITB alumni batch of 1994, which partially supports operations of the telescope. Telescope technical details are available at Facilities: Fermi-GBM - , ZTF/PO:1.2 m - , P60 - , P200 - , KPED - , LCOGT - , Gemini - , LDT - , Keck - , LT - , GIT. - Software: ipython (Pérez and Granger 2007), jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), python (Van Rossum & Drake 2009), NumPy (Harris et al. 2020), afterglowpy (Ryan et al. 2020), simsurvey (Feindt et al. 2019), pysedm (Rigault et al. 2019), SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007), PyRAF-dbsp (Bellm & Sesar 2016) , DRAGONS Labrie et al. 2019, HOTPANTS (Becker 2015), ForcePhotZTF (Yao et al. 2019), ZTF FP (Masci et al. 2019).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Swedish Research Council2020-03330
Helmholtz Weizmann Research School on Multimessenger AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Wenner-Gren FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)16-IDEX-0001 CAP 20-25
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Indo-US Science and Technology ForumUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gamma-ray bursts; Wide-field telescopes
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gamma-ray bursts (629); Wide-field telescopes (1800)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220614-222220000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Tomás Ahumada et al 2022 ApJ 932 40
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115148
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:14 Jun 2022 22:26
Last Modified:14 Jun 2022 22:26

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