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Validation of a Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Planetary Radar Sounding Simulator With SHARAD Radar Sounding Data

Lei, Yang and Raguso, Maria Carmela and Mastrogiuseppe, Marco and Elachi, Charles and Haynes, Mark S. (2022) Validation of a Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Planetary Radar Sounding Simulator With SHARAD Radar Sounding Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 60 . Art. No. 2004515. ISSN 0196-2892. doi:10.1109/tgrs.2022.3168283.

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In a recent study, a 2-D pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) full-wave simulator was developed and demonstrated to be capable of efficiently solving large-scale low-frequency (e.g., HF) electromagnetic scattering problems, for example, on the application of radar sounding simulations of planetary clutter and subsurfaces. In this article, the 2-D PSTD simulator is applied to simulate a domain as large as 4000 λ (along-track) ×1666.67λ (cross-track) ×33.33λ (depth) with λ=15 m at an HF frequency of 20 MHz. To accomplish the goal, the simulator is further improved to efficiently model/simulate large cross-track slices of dielectric scenes by allowing nonuniform grid sampling in horizontal (lateral) and vertical directions, and the cross-track results are then stitched together along the track to form the simulated radargram. By combining the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) viewing geometry and Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation model (DEM), we simulate SHARAD returns at three different sites on Mars: one at the North Pole and two at Oxia Planum. At all three sites, the PSTD simulated radargrams are compared with measured SHARAD radargrams. Through power-level calibration and reference time adjustment, the PSTD simulated power estimates are further validated by comparing with real power observations from SHARAD with a 5-dB uncertainty and Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.3–0.4 (a p -value on the order of 10⁻⁹), which justifies the use of the 2-D PSTD simulator for emulating surface clutter in planetary radar sounding. This simulator is open source and can be easily modified to support radar sounding simulations in support of other planetary missions with radar sounding instruments.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Lei, Yang0000-0002-8377-1980
Raguso, Maria Carmela0000-0003-3315-4375
Mastrogiuseppe, Marco0000-0001-9902-8115
Haynes, Mark S.0000-0003-2119-2083
Additional Information:© 2022 IEEE. Manuscript received November 2, 2021; revised March 3, 2022 and April 7, 2022; accepted April 11, 2022. Date of publication April 18, 2022; date of current version May 3, 2022. This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004), and supported in part by NASA through the Europa Clipper Project. U.S. Government sponsorship acknowledged.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Clutter, digital elevation model (DEM), electromagnetic (EM) scattering, Mars, Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), North Pole, Oxia Planum, pseudospectral time domain (PSTD), radar, SHARAD, sounding
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220622-39459500
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Official Citation:Y. Lei, M. C. Raguso, M. Mastrogiuseppe, C. Elachi and M. S. Haynes, "Validation of a Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Planetary Radar Sounding Simulator With SHARAD Radar Sounding Data," in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 60, pp. 1-15, 2022, Art no. 2004515, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2022.3168283
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115225
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Jun 2022 19:45
Last Modified:28 Jun 2022 17:59

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