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Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

Anderson, Ryan B. and Forni, Olivier and Cousin, Agnes and Wiens, Roger C. and Clegg, Samuel M. and Frydenvang, Jens and Gabriel, Travis S. J. and Ollila, Ann and Schröder, Susanne and Beyssac, Olivier and Gibbons, Erin and Vogt, David S. and Clavé, Elise and Manrique, Jose-Antonio and Legett, Carey and Pilleri, Paolo and Newell, Raymond T. and Sarrao, Joseph and Maurice, Sylvestre and Arana, Gorka and Benzerara, Karim and Bernardi, Pernelle and Bernard, Sylvain and Bousquet, Bruno and Brown, Adrian J. and Alvarez-Llamas, César and Chide, Baptiste and Cloutis, Edward and Comellas, Jade and Connell, Stephanie and Dehouck, Erwin and Delapp, Dorothea M. and Essunfeld, Ari and Fabre, Cécile and Fouchet, Thierry and Garcia-Florentino, Cristina and García-Gómez, Laura and Gasda, Patrick J. and Gasnault, Olivier and Hausrath, Elisabeth M. and Lanza, Nina L. and Laserna, Javier and Lasue, Jeremie and Lopez, Guillermo and Madariaga, Juan Manuel and Mandon, Lucia and Mangold, Nicolas and Meslin, Pierre-Yves and Nelson, Anthony E. and Newsom, Horton and Reyes-Newell, Adriana L. and Robinson, Scott and Rull, Fernando and Sharma, Shiv and Simon, Justin I. and Sobron, Pablo and Torre Fernandez, Imanol and Udry, Arya and Venhaus, Dawn and McLennan, Scott M. and Morris, Richard V. and Ehlmann, Bethany (2022) Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 188 . p. 106347. ISSN 0584-8547. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2021.106347.

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The SuperCam instrument on the Perseverance Mars 2020 rover uses a pulsed 1064 nm laser to ablate targets at a distance and conduct laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) by analyzing the light from the resulting plasma. SuperCam LIBS spectra are preprocessed to remove ambient light, noise, and the continuum signal present in LIBS observations. Prior to quantification, spectra are masked to remove noisier spectrometer regions and spectra are normalized to minimize signal fluctuations and effects of target distance. In some cases, the spectra are also standardized or binned prior to quantification. To determine quantitative elemental compositions of diverse geologic materials at Jezero crater, Mars, we use a suite of 1198 laboratory spectra of 334 well-characterized reference samples. The samples were selected to span a wide range of compositions and include typical silicate rocks, pure minerals (e.g., silicates, sulfates, carbonates, oxides), more unusual compositions (e.g., Mn ore and sodalite), and replicates of the sintered SuperCam calibration targets (SCCTs) onboard the rover. For each major element (SiO₂, TiO₂, Al₂O₃, FeO_T, MgO, CaO, Na₂O, K₂O), the database was subdivided into five “folds” with similar distributions of the element of interest. One fold was held out as an independent test set, and the remaining four folds were used to optimize multivariate regression models relating the spectrum to the composition. We considered a variety of models, and selected several for further investigation for each element, based primarily on the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) on the test set, when analyzed at 3 m. In cases with several models of comparable performance at 3 m, we incorporated the SCCT performance at different distances to choose the preferred model. Shortly after landing on Mars and collecting initial spectra of geologic targets, we selected one model per element. Subsequently, with additional data from geologic targets, some models were revised to ensure results that are more consistent with geochemical constraints. The calibration discussed here is a snapshot of an ongoing effort to deliver the most accurate chemical compositions with SuperCam LIBS.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information
Anderson, Ryan B.0000-0003-4465-2871
Forni, Olivier0000-0001-6772-9689
Cousin, Agnes0000-0001-7823-7794
Wiens, Roger C.0000-0002-3409-7344
Clegg, Samuel M.0000-0002-0338-0948
Frydenvang, Jens0000-0001-9294-1227
Schröder, Susanne0000-0003-1870-3663
Arana, Gorka0000-0001-7854-855X
Cloutis, Edward0000-0001-7301-0929
Dehouck, Erwin0000-0002-1368-4494
Delapp, Dorothea M.0000-0002-2514-337X
Fabre, Cécile0000-0001-8627-4050
Gasda, Patrick J.0000-0003-0895-1153
Gasnault, Olivier0000-0002-6979-9012
Lanza, Nina L.0000-0003-4445-7996
Lasue, Jeremie0000-0001-9082-4457
Madariaga, Juan Manuel0000-0002-1685-6335
Mangold, Nicolas0000-0002-0022-0631
Meslin, Pierre-Yves0000-0002-0703-3951
Newsom, Horton0000-0002-4358-8161
McLennan, Scott M.0000-0003-4259-7178
Morris, Richard V.0000-0003-1413-4002
Ehlmann, Bethany0000-0002-2745-3240
Additional Information:Published by Elsevier. Received 12 November 2021, Revised 14 December 2021, Accepted 15 December 2021, Available online 24 December 2021, Version of Record 21 January 2022. This project was supported in the United States by the NASA Mars Exploration Program and in France by CNES, CNRS, and local universities. Support in Spain was provided by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. Support in Germany was provided by DLR. SuperCam benefitted from LANL laboratory-directed research and development funding which provided early prototypes of the new technologies incorporated in the SuperCam BU. JF acknowledges the support from the Carlsberg Foundation. EC acknowledges funding from the Canadian Space Agency, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Manitoba Research Innovation Fund and the University of Winnipeg. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. We have no known conflicts of interest to report.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Carlsberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Manitoba Research and Innovation FundUNSPECIFIED
University of WinnipegUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; LIBS; Mars; Multivariate regression; Regression; Chemometrics; Calibration
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220705-346579000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ryan B. Anderson, Olivier Forni, Agnes Cousin, Roger C. Wiens, Samuel M. Clegg, Jens Frydenvang, Travis S.J. Gabriel, Ann Ollila, Susanne Schröder, Olivier Beyssac, Erin Gibbons, David S. Vogt, Elise Clavé, Jose-Antonio Manrique, Carey Legett, Paolo Pilleri, Raymond T. Newell, Joseph Sarrao, Sylvestre Maurice, Gorka Arana, Karim Benzerara, Pernelle Bernardi, Sylvain Bernard, Bruno Bousquet, Adrian J. Brown, César Alvarez-Llamas, Baptiste Chide, Edward Cloutis, Jade Comellas, Stephanie Connell, Erwin Dehouck, Dorothea M. Delapp, Ari Essunfeld, Cecile Fabre, Thierry Fouchet, Cristina Garcia-Florentino, Laura García-Gómez, Patrick Gasda, Olivier Gasnault, Elisabeth M. Hausrath, Nina L. Lanza, Javier Laserna, Jeremie Lasue, Guillermo Lopez, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Lucia Mandon, Nicolas Mangold, Pierre-Yves Meslin, Anthony E. Nelson, Horton Newsom, Adriana L. Reyes-Newell, Scott Robinson, Fernando Rull, Shiv Sharma, Justin I. Simon, Pablo Sobron, Imanol Torre Fernandez, Arya Udry, Dawn Venhaus, Scott M. McLennan, Richard V. Morris, Bethany Ehlmann, Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Volume 188, 2022, 106347, ISSN 0584-8547,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115331
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jul 2022 22:58
Last Modified:25 Jul 2022 23:14

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