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Self-heating of cryogenic HEMT amplifiers and the limits of microwave noise performance

Ardizzi, Anthony J. and Choi, Alexander Y. and Gabritchidze, Bekari and Kooi, Jacob and Cleary, Kieran A. and Readhead, Anthony C. S. and Minnich, Austin J. (2022) Self-heating of cryogenic HEMT amplifiers and the limits of microwave noise performance. . (Unpublished)

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The fundamental limits of the microwave noise performance of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are of scientific and practical interest for applications in radio astronomy and quantum computing. Self-heating at cryogenic temperatures has been reported to be a limiting mechanism for the noise, but cryogenic cooling strategies to mitigate it, for instance using liquid cryogens, have not been evaluated. Here, we report microwave noise measurements of a packaged two-stage HEMT amplifier immersed in normal and superfluid ⁴He baths and in vacuum from 1.6 - 80 K. We find that these liquid cryogens are unable to mitigate the thermal noise associated with self-heating. Considering this finding, we examine the implications for the lower bounds of cryogenic noise performance in HEMTs. Our analysis supports the general design principle for cryogenic HEMTs of maximizing gain at the lowest possible power.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ardizzi, Anthony J.0000-0001-8667-1208
Choi, Alexander Y.0000-0003-2006-168X
Gabritchidze, Bekari0000-0001-6392-0523
Kooi, Jacob0000-0002-6610-0384
Cleary, Kieran A.0000-0002-8214-8265
Readhead, Anthony C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Minnich, Austin J.0000-0002-9671-9540
Additional Information:The authors thank Sander Weinreb, Pekka Kangaslahti, Junjie Li, and Jan Grahn for useful discussions. A.A, A.Y.C., B.G., K.C., A.C.R., and A.J.M. were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1911220. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. J.K. was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory PDRDF under Grant No. 107614-20AW0099. Experimental work was performed at the Cahill Radio Astronomy Laboratory (CRAL) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant No. 80NM0018D0004).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
JPL President and Director's Fund107614-20AW0099
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220707-204101966
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115402
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jul 2022 21:53
Last Modified:08 Jul 2022 21:53

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