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Responsive materials architected in space and time

Xia, Xiaoxing and Spadaccini, Christopher M. and Greer, Julia R. (2022) Responsive materials architected in space and time. Nature Reviews Materials, 7 (9). pp. 683-701. ISSN 2058-8437. PMCID PMC9208549. doi:10.1038/s41578-022-00450-z.

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Rationally designed architected materials have attained previously untapped territories in materials property space. The properties and behaviours of architected materials need not be stagnant after fabrication; they can be encoded with a temporal degree of freedom such that they evolve over time. In this Review, we describe the variety of materials architected in both space and time, and their responses to various stimuli, including mechanical actuation, changes in temperature and chemical environment, and variations in electromagnetic fields. We highlight the additive manufacturing methods that can precisely prescribe complex geometries and local inhomogeneities to make such responsiveness possible. We discuss the emergent physics phenomena observed in architected materials that are analogous to those in classical materials, such as the formation and behaviour of defects, phase transformations and topologically protected properties. Finally, we offer a perspective on the future of architected materials that have a degree of intelligence through mechanical logic and artificial neural networks.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access CentralArticle
Xia, Xiaoxing0000-0003-1255-3289
Spadaccini, Christopher M.0000-0002-7074-1459
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:© 2022 Springer Nature Limited. Accepted 10 May 2022. Published 20 June 2022. The authors sincerely acknowledge the important contribution to the field of architected materials by J. Goldwasser, who passed away in March 2020 due to COVID-19; during his tenure at DARPA, he supported pioneering efforts in creating architected materials through his programme Materials with Controlled Microstructural Architecture. X.X. acknowledges the financial support from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Lab Directed Research and Development Program (20-FS-032 and 22-ERD-004). J.R.G. acknowledges financial support from the Department of Defense through Vannevar-Bush Faculty Fellowship (ONR grant number N00014-16-1-2827) and the Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Contributions. All authors contributed equally to the preparation of this manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information. Nature Reviews Materials thanks Qi Ge and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory20-FS-032
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory22-ERD-004
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipN00014-16-1-2827
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC52-07NA27344
Issue or Number:9
PubMed Central ID:PMC9208549
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220707-978178000
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Official Citation:Xia, X., Spadaccini, C.M. & Greer, J.R. Responsive materials architected in space and time. Nat Rev Mater (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115422
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jul 2022 18:07
Last Modified:08 Feb 2023 00:03

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