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Superclustering with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Dark Energy Survey. I. Evidence for Thermal Energy Anisotropy Using Oriented Stacking

Lokken, M. and Hložek, R. and van Engelen, A. and Madhavacheril, M. and Baxter, E. and DeRose, J. and Doux, C. and Pandey, S. and Rykoff, E. S. and Stein, G. and To, C. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Adhikari, S. and Aguena, M. and Allam, S. and Andrade-Oliveira, F. and Annis, J. and Battaglia, N. and Bernstein, G. M. and Bertin, E. and Bond, J. R. and Brooks, D. and Calabrese, E. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Cawthon, R. and Choi, A. and Costanzi, M. and Crocce, M. and da Costa, L. N. and da Silva Pereira, M. E. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and Doel, P. and Dunkley, J. and Everett, S. and Evrard, A. E. and Ferraro, S. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and Gallardo, P. A. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Giannantonio, T. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hill, J. C. and Hilton, M. and Hincks, A. D. and Hinton, S. R. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and Huang, Z. and Hughes, J. P. and Huterer, D. and Jain, B. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Kuehn, K. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and McMahon, J. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Mohr, J. J. and Moodley, K. and Morgan, R. and Nati, F. and Page, L. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Palmese, A. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Plazas Malagón, A. A. and Pieres, A. and Romer, A. K. and Rozo, E. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schillaci, A. and Schubnell, M. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Sheldon, E. and Shin, T. and Sifón, C. and Smith, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Tucker, D. L. and Varga, T. N. and Weller, J. and Wechsler, R. H. and Wilkinson, R. D. and Wollack, E. J. and Xu, Z. (2022) Superclustering with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Dark Energy Survey. I. Evidence for Thermal Energy Anisotropy Using Oriented Stacking. Astrophysical Journal, 933 (2). Art. No. 134. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7043.

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The cosmic web contains filamentary structure on a wide range of scales. On the largest scales, superclustering aligns multiple galaxy clusters along intercluster bridges, visible through their thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich signal in the cosmic microwave background. We demonstrate a new, flexible method to analyze the hot gas signal from multiscale extended structures. We use a Compton y-map from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) stacked on redMaPPer cluster positions from the optical Dark Energy Survey (DES). Cutout images from the y-map are oriented with large-scale structure information from DES galaxy data such that the superclustering signal is aligned before being overlaid. We find evidence of an extended quadrupole moment of the stacked y signal at the 3.5σ level, demonstrating that the large-scale thermal energy surrounding galaxy clusters is anisotropically distributed. We compare our ACT × DES results with the Buzzard simulations, finding broad agreement. Using simulations, we highlight the promise of this novel technique for constraining the evolution of anisotropic, non-Gaussian structure using future combinations of microwave and optical surveys.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Lokken, M.0000-0001-5917-955X
Hložek, R.0000-0002-0965-7864
van Engelen, A.0000-0002-3495-158X
Madhavacheril, M.0000-0001-6740-5350
Baxter, E.0000-0002-6836-3196
DeRose, J.0000-0002-0728-0960
Doux, C.0000-0003-4480-0096
Pandey, S.0000-0001-5780-637X
Rykoff, E. S.0000-0001-9376-3135
Stein, G.0000-0002-5193-516X
To, C.0000-0001-7836-2261
Adhikari, S.0000-0002-0298-4432
Aguena, M.0000-0001-5679-6747
Allam, S.0000-0002-7069-7857
Annis, J.0000-0002-0609-3987
Battaglia, N.0000-0001-5846-0411
Bernstein, G. M.0000-0002-8613-8259
Bertin, E.0000-0002-3602-3664
Bond, J. R.0000-0003-2358-9949
Brooks, D.0000-0002-8458-5047
Carnero Rosell, A.0000-0003-3044-5150
Carrasco Kind, M.0000-0002-4802-3194
Carretero, J.0000-0002-3130-0204
Cawthon, R.0000-0003-2965-6786
Choi, A.0000-0002-5636-233X
Costanzi, M.0000-0001-8158-1449
Crocce, M.0000-0002-9745-6228
da Costa, L. N.0000-0002-7731-277X
De Vicente, J.0000-0001-8318-6813
Desai, S.0000-0002-0466-3288
Dietrich, J. P.0000-0002-8134-9591
Dunkley, J.0000-0002-7450-2586
Evrard, A. E.0000-0002-4876-956X
Ferraro, S.0000-0003-4992-7854
Flaugher, B.0000-0002-2367-5049
Fosalba, P.0000-0002-1510-5214
Frieman, J.0000-0003-4079-3263
Gallardo, P. A.0000-0001-9731-3617
García-Bellido, J.0000-0002-9370-8360
Gaztanaga, E.0000-0001-9632-0815
Gerdes, D. W.0000-0001-6942-2736
Giannantonio, T.0000-0002-9865-0436
Gruen, D.0000-0003-3270-7644
Gruendl, R. A.0000-0002-4588-6517
Gschwend, J.0000-0003-3023-8362
Gutierrez, G.0000-0003-0825-0517
Hill, J. C.0000-0002-9539-0835
Hilton, M.0000-0002-8490-8117
Hincks, A. D.0000-0003-1690-6678
Hinton, S. R.0000-0003-2071-9349
Hollowood, D. L.0000-0002-9369-4157
Honscheid, K.0000-0002-6550-2023
Hoyle, B.0000-0002-2571-1357
Huang, Z.0000-0002-1506-1063
Hughes, J. P.0000-0002-8816-6800
Huterer, D.0000-0001-6558-0112
James, D. J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jeltema, T.0000-0001-6089-0365
Kuehn, K.0000-0003-0120-0808
Maia, M. A. G.0000-0001-9856-9307
Marshall, J. L.0000-0003-0710-9474
Melchior, P.0000-0002-8873-5065
Menanteau, F.0000-0002-1372-2534
Miquel, R.0000-0002-6610-4836
Mohr, J. J.0000-0002-6875-2087
Moodley, K.0000-0001-6606-7142
Morgan, R.0000-0002-7016-5471
Nati, F.0000-0002-8307-5088
Page, L.0000-0002-9828-3525
Ogando, R. L. C.0000-0003-2120-1154
Palmese, A.0000-0002-6011-0530
Paz-Chinchón, F.0000-0003-1339-2683
Plazas Malagón, A. A.0000-0002-2598-0514
Pieres, A.0000-0001-9186-6042
Romer, A. K.0000-0002-9328-879X
Rozo, E.0000-0002-1666-6275
Sanchez, E.0000-0002-9646-8198
Schillaci, A.0000-0002-0512-1042
Schubnell, M.0000-0001-9504-2059
Serrano, S.0000-0002-0211-2861
Sevilla-Noarbe, I.0000-0002-1831-1953
Sheldon, E.0000-0001-9194-0441
Sifón, C.0000-0002-8149-1352
Smith, M.0000-0002-3321-1432
Soares-Santos, M.0000-0001-6082-8529
Suchyta, E.0000-0002-7047-9358
Swanson, M. E. C.0000-0002-1488-8552
Tarle, G.0000-0003-1704-0781
Thomas, D.0000-0002-6325-5671
Tucker, D. L.0000-0001-7211-5729
Weller, J.0000-0002-8282-2010
Wechsler, R. H.0000-0003-2229-011X
Wollack, E. J.0000-0002-7567-4451
Xu, Z.0000-0001-5112-2567
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 July 19; revised 2022 May 5; accepted 2022 May 15; published 2022 July 8. Canadian co-authors acknowledge support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Computations were performed in part on the Niagara supercomputer at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation; the Government of Ontario; Ontario Research Fund—Research Excellence; and the University of Toronto. The authors thank Bruce Partridge for useful and extensive comments on the draft. J.R.B. was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant Program and a fellowship from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) Gravity and Extreme Universe program. A.D.H. acknowledges support from the Sutton Family Chair in Science, Christianity and Cultures. R.H. is a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar, Gravity and the Extreme Universe Program, 2019, and a 2020 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow. R.H. is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant Program and the Connaught Fund. The Dunlap Institute is funded through an endowment established by the David Dunlap family and the University of Toronto. J.P.H. acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF AAG No. AST-1615657. M.L. acknowledges the support of the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) [PGSD - 559296 - 2021] and the Queen Elizabeth II / Graduate Scholarships in Science and Technology (QEII-GSST). K.M. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST-0408698, AST-0965625, and AST-1440226 for the ACT project, as well as awards PHY-0355328, PHY-0855887, and PHY-1214379. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación (CONICYT). The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA grants NNX13AE56G and NNX14AB58G. Detector research at NIST was supported by the NIST Innovations in Measurement Science program. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, NFS' NOIRLab, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory at NSF's NOIRLab (NOIRLab Prop. ID 2012B-0001; PI: J. Frieman), which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant Nos. AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MICINN under grant Nos. ESP2017-89838, PGC2018-094773, PGC2018-102021, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013), including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) do e-Universo (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). We thank the anonymous referee for providing valuable comments which improved the quality of the manuscript. This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. This work received support from the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. This research used computing resources at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, operated under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Software: Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), COOP (Huang 2016), healpy (Zonca et al. 2019), HEALPix (Górski et al. 2005), NumPy (Harris et al. 2020).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)PGSD - 559296 - 2021
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Sutton Family Chair in Science, Christianity and CulturesUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Connaught FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Queen Elizabeth II / Graduate Scholarships in Science and TechnologyUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP)UNSPECIFIED
Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)465376/2014-2
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e InovaçãoUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaborationUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)ESP2017-89838
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PGC2018-094773
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PGC2018-102021
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)SEV-2016-0588
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)SEV-2016-0597
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)MDM-2015-0509
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)240672
European Research Council (ERC)291329
European Research Council (ERC)306478
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Subject Keywords:Cosmic web; Large-scale structure of the universe; Intergalactic filaments; Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect; Cosmology; Superclusters; Galaxy clusters
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Cosmic web (330); Large-scale structure of the universe (902); Intergalactic filaments (811); Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (1654); Cosmology (343); Superclusters (1657); Galaxy clusters (584)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220711-652966000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. Lokken et al 2022 ApJ 933 134
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115465
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:12 Jul 2022 15:26
Last Modified:12 Jul 2022 15:26

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