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Shocks in the stacked Sunyaev-Zel’dovich profiles of clusters II: Measurements from SPT-SZ + Planck Compton-y map

Anbajagane, D. and Chang, C. and Jain, B. and Adhikari, S. and Baxter, E. J. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Bocquet, S. and Calzadilla, M. S. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Chown, R. and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and Cui, W. and de Haan, T. and Di Mascolo, L. and Dobbs, M. A. and Everett, W. B. and George, E. M. and Grandis, S. and Halverson, N. W. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hrubes, J. D. and Lee, A. T. and Luong-Van, D. and McDonald, M. A. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Millea, M. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Natoli, T. and Omori, Y. and Padin, S. and Pryke, C. and Reichardt, C. L. and Ruhl, J. E. and Saro, A. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Vieira, J. D. and Williamson, R. (2022) Shocks in the stacked Sunyaev-Zel’dovich profiles of clusters II: Measurements from SPT-SZ + Planck Compton-y map. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 514 (2). pp. 1645-1663. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1376.

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We search for the signature of cosmological shocks in stacked gas pressure profiles of galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Specifically, we stack the latest Compton-y maps from the 2500 deg² SPT-SZ survey on the locations of clusters identified in that same data set. The sample contains 516 clusters with mean mass〈M₂₀₀ₘ〉= 10^(14.9) M_⊕ and redshift〈z〉= 0.55. We analyse in parallel a set of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations from the three hundred project. The SPT-SZ data show two features: (i) a pressure deficit at R/R₂₀₀ₘ = 1.08 ± 0.09, measured at 3.1σ significance and not observed in the simulations, and; (ii) a sharp decrease in pressure at R/R₂₀₀ₘ = 4.58 ± 1.24 at 2.0σ significance. The pressure deficit is qualitatively consistent with a shock-induced thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and ions, and the second feature is consistent with accretion shocks seen in previous studies. We split the cluster sample by redshift and mass, and find both features exist in all cases. There are also no significant differences in features along and across the cluster major axis, whose orientation roughly points towards filamentary structure. As a consistency test, we also analyse clusters from the Planck and Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter surveys and find quantitatively similar features in the pressure profiles. Finally, we compare the accretion shock radius (R_(sh,acc)) with existing measurements of the splashback radius (Rₛₚ) for SPT-SZ and constrain the lower limit of the ratio, R_(sh,acc)/Rₛₚ > 2.16 ± 0.59.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemCode
Anbajagane, D.0000-0003-3312-909X
Chang, C.0000-0002-7887-0896
Jain, B.0000-0002-8220-3973
Adhikari, S.0000-0002-0298-4432
Baxter, E. J.0000-0002-6836-3196
Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Bleem, L. E.0000-0001-7665-5079
Bocquet, S.0000-0002-4900-805X
Calzadilla, M. S.0000-0002-2238-2105
Carlstrom, J. E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chang, C. L.0000-0002-6311-0448
Chown, R.0000-0001-8241-7704
Crawford, T. M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Cui, W.0000-0002-2113-4863
Di Mascolo, L.0000-0003-3586-4485
Dobbs, M. A.0000-0001-7166-6422
Everett, W. B.0000-0002-5370-6651
George, E. M.0000-0001-7874-0445
Halverson, N. W.0000-0003-2606-9340
Holder, G. P.0000-0002-0463-6394
Holzapfel, W. L.0000-0002-5744-6439
Lee, A. T.0000-0003-3106-3218
McMahon, J. J.0000-0002-7245-4541
Meyer, S. S.0000-0003-3315-4332
Millea, M.0000-0001-7317-0551
Mocanu, L. M.0000-0002-2416-2552
Mohr, J. J.0000-0002-6875-2087
Omori, Y.0000-0002-0963-7310
Reichardt, C. L.0000-0003-2226-9169
Ruhl, J. E.0000-0001-5875-4751
Saro, A.0000-0002-9288-862X
Shirokoff, E.0000-0002-2757-1423
Stark, A. A.0000-0002-2718-9996
Vieira, J. D.0000-0001-7192-3871
Williamson, R.0000-0002-6945-2975
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Received: 23 November 2021. Revision received: 26 April 2022. Accepted: 09 May 2022. Published: 19 May 2022. We thank Tara DaCunha and Abigail Lee for their initial exploratory analyses of tSZ profiles in the Planck data set. We thank Greg Bryan, Damiano Caprioli, Mark Devlin, Andrey Kravtsov, Congyao Zhang, and Irina Zhuravleva for helpful discussions on gas physics in clusters, Shivam Pandey for discussions on the theoretical modelling of the tSZ profiles, Tae-Hyeon Shin for providing us with the SPT-SZ log-derivative curves from S19, and Maya Mallaby-Kay for kindly helping us navigate the PIXELL software library. We also thank the anonymous referee for raising useful points that added to the discussion presented here. Finally, we are grateful to the SPT-SZ, ACTPol, and Planck collaborations for making their data products publicly available to the community. This project strongly benefited from the free-flow of information across surveys and collaborations. We additionally thank Colin Hill and Mathew Madhavacheril for their generous support in including the ACT data in this study. DA is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1746045. CC is supported by the Henry Luce Foundation and DOE grant DE-SC0021949. BJ is supported in part by NASA ATP Grant No. NNH17ZDA001N and DOE Grant No. DE-SC0007901. WC is supported by the European Research Council under grant number 670193 and by the STFC AGP Grant ST/V000594/1. He further acknowledges the science research grants from the China Manned Space Project with NO. CMS-CSST-2021-A01 and CMS-CSST-2021-B01. LDM is supported by the ERC-StG ‘ClustersXCosmo’ grant agreement 716762. CR acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council Discovery Projects scheme (DP200101068). AS is supported by the ERC-StG ‘ClustersXCosmo’ grant agreement 716762, by the FARE-MIUR grant ‘ClustersXEuclid’ R165SBKTMA, and by INFN InDark Grant. The South Pole Telescope program is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through award OPP-1852617. All analysis in this work was enabled greatly by the following software: PANDAS (McKinney 2011), NUMPY (Van der Walt, Colbert & Varoquaux 2011), SCIPY (Virtanen et al. 2020), and MATPLOTLIB (Hunter 2007). We have also used the Astrophysics Data Service (ADS) and arXiv preprint repository extensively during this project and the writing of the paper. DATA AVAILABILITY. All data used in our analyses of SPT-SZ, ACTPol, and Planck are publicly available at the repositories linked to in this paper. Data products from THE300 simulations are not hosted on a public repository, but the interested reader is encouraged to reach out to THE300 Collaboration for data access. The code used to generate the theoretical tSZ profile of a halo, including both one-halo and two-halo contributions, is made available at This repository also contains the profiles and log-derivatives shown in the figures of this work.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1746045
Henry Luce FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0021949
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0007901
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V000594/1
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A01
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-B01
European Research Council (ERC)716762
Australian Research CouncilDP200101068
European Research Council (ERC)670193
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)R165SBKTMA
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium, large-scale structure of Universe
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220712-629682000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:D Anbajagane, C Chang, B Jain, S Adhikari, E J Baxter, B A Benson, L E Bleem, S Bocquet, M S Calzadilla, J E Carlstrom, C L Chang, R Chown, T M Crawford, A T Crites, W Cui, T de Haan, L Di Mascolo, M A Dobbs, W B Everett, E M George, S Grandis, N W Halverson, G P Holder, W L Holzapfel, J D Hrubes, A T Lee, D Luong-Van, M A McDonald, J J McMahon, S S Meyer, M Millea, L M Mocanu, J J Mohr, T Natoli, Y Omori, S Padin, C Pryke, C L Reichardt, J E Ruhl, A Saro, K K Schaffer, E Shirokoff, Z Staniszewski, A A Stark, J D Vieira, R Williamson, Shocks in the stacked Sunyaev-Zel’dovich profiles of clusters II: Measurements from SPT-SZ + Planck Compton-y map, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 514, Issue 2, August 2022, Pages 1645–1663,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115513
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 Jul 2022 20:16
Last Modified:13 Jul 2022 20:16

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