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Ionization yield measurement in a germanium CDMSlite detector using photo-neutron sources

Albakry, M. F. and Alkhatib, I. and Amaral, D. W. P. and Aralis, T. and Aramaki, T. and Arnquist, I. J. and Ataee Langroudy, I. and Azadbakht, E. and Banik, S. and Bathurst, C. and Bauer, D. A. and Bezerra, L. V. S. and Bhattacharyya, R. and Bowles, M. A. and Brink, P. L. and Bunker, R. and Cabrera, B. and Calkins, R. and Cameron, R. A. and Cartaro, C. and Cerdeño, D. G. and Chang, Y.-Y. and Chaudhuri, M. and Chen, R. and Chott, N. and Cooley, J. and Coombes, H. and Corbett, J. and Cushman, P. and De Brienne, F. and di Vacri, M. L. and Diamond, M. D. and Fascione, E. and Figueroa-Feliciano, E. and Fink, C. W. and Fouts, K. and Fritts, M. and Gerbier, G. and Germond, R. and Ghaith, M. and Golwala, S. R. and Hall, J. and Hines, B. A. and Hollister, M. I. and Hong, Z. and Hoppe, E. W. and Hsu, L. and Huber, M. E. and Iyer, V. and Jastram, A. and Kashyap, V. K. S. and Kelsey, M. H. and Kubik, A. and Kurinsky, N. A. and Lawrence, R. E. and Lee, M. and Li, A. and Liu, J. and Liu, Y. and Loer, B. and Lukens, P. and MacDonell, D. and MacFarlane, D. B. and Mahapatra, R. and Mandic, V. and Mast, N. and Mayer, A. J. and Meyer zu Theenhausen, H. and Michaud, É. and Michielin, E. and Mirabolfathi, N. and Mohanty, B. and Morales Mendoza, J. D. and Nagorny, S. and Nelson, J. and Neog, H. and Novati, V. and Orrell, J. L. and Osborne, M. D. and Oser, S. M. and Page, W. A. and Partridge, R. and Pedreros, D. S. and Podviianiuk, R. and Ponce, F. and Poudel, S. and Pradeep, A. and Pyle, M. and Rau, W. and Reid, E. and Ren, R. and Reynolds, T. and Roberts, A. and Robinson, A. E. and Saab, T. and Sadoulet, B. and Saikia, I. and Sander, J. and Sattari, A. and Scarff, A. and Schmidt, B. and Schnee, R. W. and Scorza, S. and Serfass, B. and Sincavage, D. J. and Stanford, C. and Street, J. and Thasrawala, F. K. and Toback, D. and Underwood, R. and Verma, S. and Villano, A. N. and von Krosigk, B. and Watkins, S. L. and Wen, O. and Williams, Z. and Wilson, M. J. and Winchell, J. and Wykoff, K. and Yellin, S. and Young, B. A. and Yu, T. C. and Zatschler, B. and Zatschler, S. and Zaytsev, A. and Zhang, E. and Zheng, L. and Zuber, S. (2022) Ionization yield measurement in a germanium CDMSlite detector using photo-neutron sources. Physical Review D, 105 (12). Art. No. 122002. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.105.122002.

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Two photo-neutron sources, ⁸⁸Y⁹Be and ¹²⁴Sb⁹Be, have been used to investigate the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in the CDMSlite germanium detectors by the SuperCDMS collaboration. This work evaluates the yield for nuclear recoil energies between 1 and 7 keV at a temperature of ∼50 mK. We use a geant4 simulation to model the neutron spectrum assuming a charge yield model that is a generalization of the standard Lindhard model and consists of two energy dependent parameters. We perform a likelihood analysis using the simulated neutron spectrum, modeled background, and experimental data to obtain the best fit values of the yield model. The ionization yield between recoil energies of 1 and 7 keV is shown to be significantly lower than predicted by the standard Lindhard model for germanium. There is a general lack of agreement among different experiments using a variety of techniques studying the low energy range of the nuclear recoil yield, which is most critical for interpretation of direct dark matter searches. This suggests complexity in the physical process that many direct detection experiments use to model their primary signal detection mechanism and highlights the need for further studies to clarify underlying systematic effects that have not been well understood up to this point.

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Golwala, S. R.0000-0002-1098-7174
Additional Information:© 2022 American Physical Society. (Received 15 February 2022; accepted 20 May 2022; published 17 June 2022) The SuperCDMS Collaboration gratefully acknowledges technical assistance from the staff of the Soudan Underground Laboratory and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The CDMSlite and iZIP detectors were fabricated in the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, which is a member of the National Nanofabrication Infrastructure Network, sponsored and supported by the NSF. Funding and support were received from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fermilab URA Visiting Scholar Grant No. 15-S-33, NSERC Canada, the Canada First Excellence Research Fund, the Arthur B. McDonald Institute (Canada), the Department of Atomic Energy Government of India (DAE), the Department of Science and Technology (DST, India) and the DFG (Germany)—Project No. 420484612 and under Germany’s Excellence Strategy—EXC 2121 “Quantum Universe”—390833306. Femilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, SLAC is operated by Stanford University, and the PNNL is operated by the Battelle Memorial Institute, each for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. DE-AC02-37407CH11359, No. DE-AC02-76SF00515, and No. DE-AC05-76RL01830, respectively.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada First Research Excellence FundUNSPECIFIED
Arthur B. McDonald InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)420484612
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)390833306
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-37407CH11359
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC05-76RL01830
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220715-332486000
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115632
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Jul 2022 17:16
Last Modified:18 Jul 2022 17:16

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