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LoVoCCS. I. Survey Introduction, Data Processing Pipeline, and Early Science Results

Fu, Shenming and Dell’Antonio, Ian and Chary, Ranga-Ram and Clowe, Douglas and Cooper, M. C. and Donahue, Megan and Evrard, August and Lacy, Mark and Lauer, Tod and Liu, Binyang and McCleary, Jacqueline and Meneghetti, Massimo and Miyatake, Hironao and Montes, Mireia and Natarajan, Priyamvada and Ntampaka, Michelle and Pierpaoli, Elena and Postman, Marc and Sohn, Jubee and Umetsu, Keiichi and Utsumi, Yousuke and Wilson, Gillian (2022) LoVoCCS. I. Survey Introduction, Data Processing Pipeline, and Early Science Results. Astrophysical Journal, 933 (1). Art. No. 84. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac68e8.

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We present the Local Volume Complete Cluster Survey (LoVoCCS; we pronounce it as “low-vox” or “law-vox,” with stress on the second syllable), an NSF’s National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory survey program that uses the Dark Energy Camera to map the dark matter distribution and galaxy population in 107 nearby (0.03 z Lₓ₅₀₀ > 10⁴⁴ erg s⁻¹) galaxy clusters that are not obscured by the Milky Way. The survey will reach Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) Year 1–2 depth (for galaxies r = 24.5, i = 24.0, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 20; u = 24.7, g = 25.3, z = 23.8, S/N > 10) and conclude in ∼2023 (coincident with the beginning of LSST science operations), and will serve as a zeroth-year template for LSST transient studies. We process the data using the LSST Science Pipelines that include state-of-the-art algorithms and analyze the results using our own pipelines, and therefore the catalogs and analysis tools will be compatible with the LSST. We demonstrate the use and performance of our pipeline using three X-ray luminous and observation-time complete LoVoCCS clusters: A3911, A3921, and A85. A3911 and A3921 have not been well studied previously by weak lensing, and we obtain similar lensing analysis results for A85 to previous studies. (We mainly use A3911 to show our pipeline and give more examples in the Appendix.)

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Fu, Shenming0000-0001-5422-1958
Dell’Antonio, Ian0000-0003-0751-7312
Chary, Ranga-Ram0000-0001-7583-0621
Cooper, M. C.0000-0003-1371-6019
Donahue, Megan0000-0002-2808-0853
Evrard, August0000-0002-4876-956X
Lacy, Mark0000-0002-3032-1783
Lauer, Tod0000-0003-3234-7247
McCleary, Jacqueline0000-0002-9883-7460
Meneghetti, Massimo0000-0003-1225-7084
Miyatake, Hironao0000-0001-7964-9766
Montes, Mireia0000-0001-7847-0393
Natarajan, Priyamvada0000-0002-5554-8896
Ntampaka, Michelle0000-0002-0144-387X
Pierpaoli, Elena0000-0002-7957-8993
Postman, Marc0000-0002-9365-7989
Sohn, Jubee0000-0002-9254-144X
Umetsu, Keiichi0000-0002-7196-4822
Utsumi, Yousuke0000-0001-6161-8988
Wilson, Gillian0000-0002-6572-7089
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 December 22; revised 2022 April 18; accepted 2022 April 19; published 2022 July 6. We thank the referees and Prof. Gregory Tucker and Prof. Jonathan Pober at Brown University for their comments on this paper. We thank the LSST Data Management team for teaching us how to use the software. We thank the members of the Observational Cosmology, Gravitational Lensing and Astrophysics Research Group at Brown University for contributing to the tests of the run_steps pipeline on different galaxy clusters. We thank the CTIO observation support team as well. I.D. and D.C. are thankful for support from NSF (No. AST-2108287; Collaborative Research; LoVoCCS: The Local Volume Complete Cluster Survey). G.W. acknowledges support from HST program numbers GO-15294 and GO-16300, and grant number 80NSSC17K0019 issued through the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP). Support for program numbers GO-15294 and GO-16300 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This research was conducted using computational resources and services at the Center for Computation and Visualization, Brown University. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The national facility capability for SkyMapper has been funded through ARC LIEF grant LE130100104 from the Australian Research Council, awarded to the University of Sydney, the Australian National University, Swinburne University of Technology, the University of Queensland, the University of Western Australia, the University of Melbourne, Curtin University of Technology, Monash University, and the Australian Astronomical Observatory. SkyMapper is owned and operated by The Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The survey data were processed and provided by the SkyMapper Team at ANU. The SkyMapper node of the All-Sky Virtual Observatory (ASVO) is hosted at the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI). Development and support of the SkyMapper node of the ASVO has been funded in part by Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) and the Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) and National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS), particularly the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) and the Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS). Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University. The Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) collaboration includes the astronomical communities of Japan and Taiwan, and Princeton University. The HSC instrumentation and software were developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (Kavli IPMU), the University of Tokyo, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan (ASIAA), and Princeton University. Funding was contributed by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST) program from the Japanese Cabinet Office, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the Toray Science Foundation, NAOJ, Kavli IPMU, KEK, ASIAA, and Princeton University. The Subaru Telescope is honored and grateful for the opportunity of observing the universe from Maunakea, which has cultural, historical, and natural significance in Hawaii. This paper makes use of software developed for LSST. We thank the LSST Project for making their code available as free software at This research has made use of the SVO Filter Profile Service ( supported from the Spanish MINECO through grant AYA2017-84089. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This project used data obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which was constructed by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the US Department of Energy, the US National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Enérgeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, NSF's NOIRLab, the University of Nottingham, the Ohio State University, the OzDES Membership Consortium, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, and Texas A&M University. This work is based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, NSF's NOIRLab (NOIRLab Prop. ID 2019A-0308; PI: I. Dell'Antonio), which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. This research uses services and data provided by the Astro Data Archive at NSF's NOIRLab. These data are associated with the observing programs listed in Table 4 (Appendix F). This project used public archival data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as distributed by the Astro Data Archive at NSF's NOIRLab. DES is based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a program of NOIRLab (NOIRLab Prop. 2012B-0001; PI J. Frieman). The Legacy Surveys consist of three individual and complementary projects: the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS; Prop. ID #2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey), the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; NOAO Prop. ID #2015A-0801; PIs: Zhou Xu and Xiaohui Fan), and the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; Prop. ID #2016A-0453; PI: Arjun Dey). DECaLS, BASS, and MzLS together include data obtained, respectively, at the Blanco telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, NSF's NOIRLab; the Bok telescope, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; and the Mayall telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, NOIRLab. The Legacy Surveys project is honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du'ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O'odham Nation. BASS is a key project of the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (the Strategic Priority Research Program "The Emergence of Cosmological Structures" grant #XDB09000000), and the Special Fund for Astronomy from the Ministry of Finance. The BASS is also supported by the External Cooperation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant #114A11KYSB20160057), and Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (grant #11433005). The Legacy Survey team makes use of data products from the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. NEOWISE is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Legacy Surveys imaging of the DESI footprint is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH1123, by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility under the same contract; and by the U.S. National Science Foundation, Division of Astronomical Sciences under contract No. AST-0950945 to NOAO. The scientific results reported in this article are based on data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Facility: CTIO, 4 m (DECam). Software: Numpy (Harris et al. 2020), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018, 2013), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), and Astroquery (Ginsburg et al.2019).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilLE130100104
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AyA2017-84089
Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaborationUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB09000000
Ministry of Finance (China)UNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of Sciences114A11KYSB20160057
National Natural Science Foundation of China11433005
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH1123
Subject Keywords:Weak gravitational lensing; Astronomy data analysis; Surveys; Galaxy clusters; Observational cosmology; Dark matter
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Weak gravitational lensing (1797); Astronomy data analysis (1858); Surveys (1671); Galaxy clusters (584); Observational cosmology (1146); Dark matter (353)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220715-743895000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Shenming Fu et al 2022 ApJ 933 84
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115638
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:20 Jul 2022 21:20
Last Modified:20 Jul 2022 21:20

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