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The Discovery of a Planetary Companion Interior to Hot Jupiter WASP-132 b

Hord, Benjamin J. and Colón, Knicole D. and Berger, Travis A. and Kostov, Veselin and Silverstein, Michele L. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Lissauer, Jack J. and Collins, Karen A. and Schwarz, Richard P. and Sefako, Ramotholo and Ziegler, Carl and Briceño, César and Law, Nicholas and Mann, Andrew W. and Ricker, George R. and Latham, David W. and Seager, S. and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Bouma, Luke G. and Falk, Ben and Torres, Guillermo and Twicken, Joseph D. and Vanderburg, Andrew (2022) The Discovery of a Planetary Companion Interior to Hot Jupiter WASP-132 b. Astronomical Journal, 164 (1). Art. No. 13. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac6f57.

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Hot Jupiters are generally observed to lack close planetary companions, a trend that has been interpreted as evidence for high-eccentricity migration. We present the discovery and validation of WASP-132 c (TOI-822.02), a 1.85 ± 0.10 R_⊕ planet on a 1.01 day orbit interior to the hot Jupiter WASP-132 b. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite and ground-based follow-up observations, in conjunction with vetting and validation analysis, enable us to rule out common astrophysical false positives and validate the observed transit signal produced by WASP-132 c as a planet. Running the validation tools vespa and TRICERATOPS on this signal yields false-positive probabilities of 9.02 × 10⁻⁵ and 0.0107, respectively. Analysis of archival CORALIE radial velocity data leads to a 3σ upper limit of 28.23 ms⁻¹ on the amplitude of any 1.01 day signal, corresponding to a 3σ upper mass limit of 37.35 M_⊕. Dynamical simulations reveal that the system is stable within the 3σ uncertainties on the planetary and orbital parameters for timescales of ∼100 Myr. The existence of a planetary companion near the hot Jupiter WASP-132 b makes the giant planet’s formation and evolution via high-eccentricity migration highly unlikely. Being one of just a handful of nearby planetary companions to hot Jupiters, WASP-132 c carries with it significant implications for the formation of the system and hot Jupiters as a population.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Hord, Benjamin J.0000-0001-5084-4269
Colón, Knicole D.0000-0001-8020-7121
Berger, Travis A.0000-0002-2580-3614
Kostov, Veselin0000-0001-9786-1031
Silverstein, Michele L.0000-0003-2565-7909
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Lissauer, Jack J.0000-0001-6513-1659
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Sefako, Ramotholo0000-0003-3904-6754
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Briceño, César0000-0001-7124-4094
Law, Nicholas0000-0001-9380-6457
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Bouma, Luke G.0000-0002-0514-5538
Torres, Guillermo0000-0002-5286-0251
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 March 25; revised 2022 May 3; accepted 2022 May 11; published 2022 June 16. We thank J. Rowe and T. Barclay for the valuable suggestions for this study. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and produced by the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. This research effort made use of systematic error-corrected (PDC-SAP) photometry. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Followup Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC; Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of the Data & Analysis Center for Exoplanets (DACE), which is a facility based at the University of Geneva (CH) dedicated to extrasolar planet data visualization, exchange, and analysis. DACE is a platform of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) PlanetS, federating the Swiss expertize in exoplanet research. The DACE platform is available at Simulations in this paper made use of the REBOUND N-body code (Rein & Liu 2012). The simulations were integrated using the hybrid symplectic MERCURIUS integrator (Rein et al. 2019). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. B.J.H. acknowledges support from the Future Investigators in NASA Earth and Space Science and Technology (FINESST) program grant 80NSSC20K1551 and support by NASA under award No. 80GSFC21M0002. T.A.B. and M.L.S. acknowledge support from an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by the Universities Space Research Association and Oak Ridge Associated Universities under contract with NASA. Facilities: CORALIE - , Gaia - , LCOGT - Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, SOAR - The Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, TESS. - Software: AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), astropy (Robitaille et al. 2013; Price-Whelan et al. 2018), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017; Foreman-Mackey 2018), DACE, DAVE (Kostov et al. 2019b), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2019), Forecaster (Chen & Kipping 2016), Jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), Lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), NumPy (Van Der Walt et al. 2011), Pandas (McKinney 2010), PyMC3 (Salvatier et al. 2016), SciPy (Oliphant 2007), STARRY (Luger et al. 2018; Agol et al. 2019), TAPIR (Jensen 2013), Theano (Theano Development Team 2016), TRICERATOPS (Giacalone & Dressing 2020; Giacalone et al. 2021), REBOUND (Rein & Liu 2012), vespa (Morton 2012, 2015).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship80NSSC20K1551
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy; Exoplanet systems; Exoplanets; Hot Jupiters; Extrasolar gaseous planets; Transit photometry
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Exoplanet systems (484); Exoplanets (498); Hot Jupiters (753); Extrasolar gaseous planets (2172); Transit photometry (1709)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220715-744387000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Benjamin J. Hord et al 2022 AJ 164 13
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115653
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Jul 2022 16:51
Last Modified:18 Jul 2022 16:51

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