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The detection efficiency of Type Ia supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility: limits on the intrinsic rate of early flux excesses

Magee, M. R. and Cuddy, C. and Maguire, K. and Deckers, M. and Dhawan, S. and Frohmaier, C. and Miller, A. A. and Nordin, J. and Coughlin, M. W. and Feinstein, F. and Riddle, R. (2022) The detection efficiency of Type Ia supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility: limits on the intrinsic rate of early flux excesses. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 513 (2). pp. 3035-3049. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1045.

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Samples of young Type Ia supernovae have shown ‘early excess’ emission in a few cases. Similar excesses are predicted by some explosion and progenitor scenarios and hence can provide important clues regarding the origin of thermonuclear supernovae. They are, however, only predicted to last up to the first few days following explosion. It is therefore unclear whether such scenarios are intrinsically rare or whether the relatively small sample size simply reflects the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently early detections. To that end, we perform toy simulations covering a range of survey depths and cadences, and investigate the efficiency with which young Type Ia supernovae are recovered. As input for our simulations, we use models that broadly cover the range of predicted luminosities. Based on our simulations, we find that in a typical 3 d cadence survey, only ∼10 per cent of Type Ia supernovae would be detected early enough to rule out the presence of an excess. A 2 d cadence, however, should see this increase to ∼15 per cent. We find comparable results from more detailed simulations of the Zwicky Transient Facility surveys. Using the recovery efficiencies from these detailed simulations, we investigate the number of young Type Ia supernovae expected to be discovered assuming some fraction of the population comes from scenarios producing an excess at early times. Comparing the results of our simulations to observations, we find that the intrinsic fraction of Type Ia supernovae with early flux excesses is 28⁺¹³₋₁₁ per cent.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemModels
Magee, M. R.0000-0002-0629-8931
Maguire, K.0000-0002-9770-3508
Deckers, M.0000-0001-8857-9843
Dhawan, S.0000-0002-2376-6979
Frohmaier, C.0000-0001-9553-4723
Miller, A. A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Nordin, J.0000-0001-8342-6274
Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Riddle, R.0000-0002-0387-370X
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2022 April 9. Received 2022 April 9; in original form 2021 November 25. Published: 14 April 2022. We thank the referee for their constructive comments, which helped to focus our manuscript. We thank T. Collett for useful discussions. MRM and KM were funded by the EU H2020 European Research Council (ERC) grant no. 758638. This work has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (LensEra: grant agreement no. 945536). This study is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. Major funding has been provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant no. AST-1440341 and by the ZTF partner institutions: the California Institute of Technology, the Oskar Klein Centre, the Weizmann Institute of Science, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, and the TANGO Program of the University System of Taiwan. MWC acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant no. PHY-2010970. Data Availability: All models presented in this work are available on GitHub.
Group:Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)758638
European Research Council (ERC)945536
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:radiative transfer –supernovae: general
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220719-149355000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M R Magee, C Cuddy, K Maguire, M Deckers, S Dhawan, C Frohmaier, A A Miller, J Nordin, M W Coughlin, F Feinstein, R Riddle, The detection efficiency of Type Ia supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility: limits on the intrinsic rate of early flux excesses, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 513, Issue 2, June 2022, Pages 3035–3049,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115682
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Jul 2022 16:26
Last Modified:20 Jul 2022 16:26

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