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Jupiter’s inhomogeneous envelope

Miguel, Y. and Bazot, M. and Guillot, T. and Howard, S. and Galanti, E. and Kaspi, Y. and Hubbard, W. B. and Militzer, B. and Helled, R. and Atreya, S. K. and Connerney, J. E. P. and Durante, D. and Kulowski, L. and Lunine, J. I. and Stevenson, D. and Bolton, S. (2022) Jupiter’s inhomogeneous envelope. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 662 . Art. No. A18. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243207.

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Context. While Jupiter’s massive gas envelope consists mainly of hydrogen and helium, the key to understanding Jupiter’s formation and evolution lies in the distribution of the remaining (heavy) elements. Before the Juno mission, the lack of high-precision gravity harmonics precluded the use of statistical analyses in a robust determination of the heavy-element distribution in Jupiter’s envelope. Aims. In this paper, we assemble the most comprehensive and diverse collection of Jupiter interior models to date and use it to study the distribution of heavy elements in the planet’s envelope. Methods. We apply a Bayesian statistical approach to our interior model calculations, reproducing the Juno gravitational and atmospheric measurements and constraints from the deep zonal flows. Results. Our results show that the gravity constraints lead to a deep entropy of Jupiter corresponding to a 1 bar temperature that is 515 K higher than traditionally assumed. We also find that uncertainties in the equation of state are crucial when determining the amount of heavy elements in Jupiter’s interior. Our models put an upper limit to the inner compact core of Jupiter of 7 MEarth, independently of the structure model (with or without a dilute core) and the equation of state considered. Furthermore, we robustly demonstrate that Jupiter’s envelope is inhomogeneous, with a heavy-element enrichment in the interior relative to the outer envelope. This implies that heavy-element enrichment continued through the gas accretion phase, with important implications for the formation of giant planets in our Solar System and beyond.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Miguel, Y.0000-0002-0747-8862
Bazot, M.0000-0003-0166-1540
Guillot, T.0000-0002-7188-8428
Howard, S.0000-0003-4894-7271
Galanti, E.0000-0002-5440-8779
Kaspi, Y.0000-0003-4089-0020
Hubbard, W. B.0000-0003-3185-4538
Militzer, B.0000-0002-7092-5629
Helled, R.0000-0001-5555-2652
Atreya, S. K.0000-0002-1972-1815
Connerney, J. E. P.0000-0001-7478-6462
Durante, D.0000-0002-7888-3021
Kulowski, L.0000-0001-8550-749X
Lunine, J. I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Stevenson, D.0000-0001-9432-7159
Bolton, S.0000-0002-9115-0789
Additional Information:© ESO 2022. Received: 27 January 2022 Accepted: 2 March 2022. The authors would like to thank the Juno Interior Working Group for useful discussions. We also thank S. Mazevet for providing the equation of state used in his paper (Mazevet et al. 2022) and for useful discussions about this topic. JIL was supported by the Juno Project through a subcontract with the Southwest Research Institute.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Southwest Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planets and satellites: interiors / planets and satellites: gaseous planets / planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: composition
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220721-8761000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jupiter’s inhomogeneous envelope Y. Miguel, M. Bazot, T. Guillot, S. Howard, E. Galanti, Y. Kaspi, W. B. Hubbard, B. Militzer, R. Helled, S. K. Atreya, J. E. P. Connerney, D. Durante, L. Kulowski, J. I. Lunine, D. Stevenson and S. Bolton A&A, 662 (2022) A18 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115741
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:21 Jul 2022 22:27
Last Modified:21 Jul 2022 22:27

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