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The Large Superfast Rotators Discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility

Chang, Chan-Kao and Yeh, Ting-Shuo and Tan, Hanjie and Ip, Wing-Huen and Kelley, Michael S. P. and Ye, Quanzhi and Lin, Zhong-Yi and Ngeow, Chow-Choong and Bolin, Bryce T. and Prince, Thomas A. and Bellm, Eric C. and Dekany, Richard and Duev, Dmitry A. and Graham, Matthew (2022) The Large Superfast Rotators Discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 932 (1). Art. No. L5. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac6e5e.

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Two high-cadence surveys aiming for rotation period measurements of asteroids have been conducted in 2019 January and October using the Zwicky Transient Facility. From the surveys, 25 large superfast rotators (SFRs) were discovered and they are all main-belt asteroids (MBAs), except for one Mars crosser. These large SFRs have a diameter ranging from 0.43 to 7.87 km and a rotation period between 0.48 and 1.95 hr. Considering their diameters and fast rotations, they cannot be explained by rubble-pile structure unless using extraordinary high bulk densities. Cohesion, if available, can conserve these large SFRs. The estimated cohesion for these large SFRs could be up to thousands of pascals, much higher than the currently estimated cohesion for asteroids and that generated by the regolith of Moon and Mars. Such high-level cohesion can be produced from fine-grain regolith, like clay. However, the availability of such fine-grain regolith for asteroids is still unknown. Although the possibility of these large SFRs being large monolithic objects cannot be ruled out, this scenario is very unlikely given that the timescale of disruptive impact for MBAs in a similar diameter range is 10⁷–10⁸ yr.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Chang, Chan-Kao0000-0003-1656-4540
Ip, Wing-Huen0000-0002-3140-5014
Kelley, Michael S. P.0000-0002-6702-7676
Ye, Quanzhi0000-0002-4838-7676
Lin, Zhong-Yi0000-0003-3827-8991
Ngeow, Chow-Choong0000-0001-8771-7554
Bolin, Bryce T.0000-0002-4950-6323
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Graham, Matthew0000-0002-3168-0139
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 October 24; revised 2022 May 9; accepted 2022 May 10; published 2022 June 9. This work is supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST) under grants 104-2923-M-008-004-MY5, 109-2112-M-008-014-MY3, and MOST 110-2112-M-008-003. C.C. acknowledges the support from Dr. Shiang-Yu Wang under the grant MOST 110-2112-M-001-032. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2923-M-008-004-MY5
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2112-M-008-014-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)110-2112-M-008-003
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)110-2112-M-001-032
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Asteroids; Asteroid rotation; Light curves; Time series analysis; Time domain astronomy
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Asteroids (72); Asteroid rotation (2211); Light curves (918); Time series analysis (1916); Time domain astronomy (2109)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220722-769112000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Chan-Kao Chang et al 2022 ApJL 932 L5
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115784
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:26 Jul 2022 19:33
Last Modified:26 Jul 2022 19:33

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