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The Early History of Heliospheric Science and the Spacecraft That Made It Possible

Zank, G. P. and Sterken, V. and Giacalone, J. and Möbius, E. and von Steiger, R. and Stone, E. S. and Krimigis, S. M. and Richardson, J. W. and Linsky, J. and Izmodenov, V. and Heber, B. (2022) The Early History of Heliospheric Science and the Spacecraft That Made It Possible. Space Science Reviews, 218 (4). Art. No. 34. ISSN 0038-6308. doi:10.1007/s11214-022-00900-8.

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Our understanding of the interaction of the large-scale heliosphere with the local interstellar medium (LISM) has undergone a profound change since the very earliest analyses of the problem. In part, the revisions have been a consequence of ever-improving and widening observational results, especially those that identified the entrance of interstellar material and gas into the heliosphere. Accompanying these observations was the identification of the basic underlying physics of how neutral interstellar gas and interstellar charged particles of different energies, up to and including interstellar dust grains, interacted with the temporal flows and electromagnetic fields of the heliosphere. The incorporation of these various basic effects into global models of the interaction, whether focused on neutral interstellar gas and pickup ions, energetic particles such as anomalous and galactic cosmic rays, or magnetic fields and large-scale flows, has profoundly changed our view of how the heliosphere and LISM interact. This article presents a brief history of the conceptual and observation evolution of our understanding of the interaction of the heliosphere with the local interstellar medium, up until approximately 1996.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Zank, G. P.0000-0002-4642-6192
Sterken, V.0000-0003-0843-7912
Giacalone, J.0000-0002-0850-4233
Stone, E. S.0000-0002-2010-5462
Krimigis, S. M.0000-0003-2781-2386
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Linsky, J.0000-0003-4446-3181
Heber, B.0000-0003-0960-5658
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Received: 2 March 2022 / Accepted: 2 May 2022 / Published online: 25 May 2022. GPZ acknowledges the partial support of an NSF EPSCoR RII-Track-1 Cooperative Agreement OIA-1655280, a NASA IBEX award 80NSSC20K0719, a NASA IMAP subaward under NASA contract 80GSFC19C0027, and a BU NASA DRIVE award 80NSSC20K0603. V.J. Sterken received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement N 851544. Open access funding provided by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)851544
Subject Keywords:Heliosphere · Interstellar medium
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220725-156819000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Zank, G.P., Sterken, V., Giacalone, J. et al. The Early History of Heliospheric Science and the Spacecraft That Made It Possible. Space Sci Rev 218, 34 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115832
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:27 Jul 2022 16:43
Last Modified:27 Jul 2022 16:43

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