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BASS. XXVI. DR2 Host Galaxy Stellar Velocity Dispersions

Koss, Michael J. and Trakhtenbrot, Benny and Ricci, Claudio and Oh, Kyuseok and Bauer, Franz E. and Stern, Daniel and Caglar, Turgay and den Brok, Jakob S. and Mushotzky, Richard and Ricci, Federica and Mejía-Restrepo, Julian E. and Lamperti, Isabella and Treister, Ezequiel and Bär, Rudolf E. and Harrison, Fiona and Powell, Meredith C. and Privon, George C. and Riffel, Rogério and Rojas, Alejandra F. and Schawinski, Kevin and Urry, C. Megan (2022) BASS. XXVI. DR2 Host Galaxy Stellar Velocity Dispersions. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 261 (1). Art. No. 6. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ac650b.

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We present new central stellar velocity dispersions for 484 Sy 1.9 and Sy 2 from the second data release of the Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS DR2). This constitutes the largest study of velocity dispersion measurements in X-ray-selected obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) with 956 independent measurements of the Ca ii H and K λ3969, 3934 and Mg I λ5175 region (3880–5550 Å) and the calcium triplet region (8350–8730 Å) from 642 spectra mainly from VLT/X-Shooter or Palomar/DoubleSpec. Our sample spans velocity dispersions of 40–360 km s1, corresponding to 4–5 orders of magnitude in black hole mass (M_(BH) = 10^(5.5−9.6) M_⊙), bolometric luminosity (L_(bol) ∼ 10⁴²⁻⁴⁶ erg s⁻¹), and Eddington ratio (L/L_(Edd) ∼ 10⁻⁵ to 2). For 281 AGN, our data and analysis provide the first published central velocity dispersions, including six AGN with low-mass black holes (M_(BH) = 10^(5.5−6.5) M_⊙), discovered thanks to high spectral resolution observations (σ_(inst) ∼ 25 km s⁻¹). The survey represents a significant advance with a nearly complete census of velocity dispersions of hard X-ray–selected obscured AGN with measurements for 99% of nearby AGN (z b∣ > 10°). The BASS AGN have much higher velocity dispersions than the more numerous optically selected narrow-line AGN (i.e., ∼150 versus ∼100 km s⁻¹) but are not biased toward the highest velocity dispersions of massive ellipticals (i.e., >250 km s⁻¹). Despite sufficient spectral resolution to resolve the velocity dispersions associated with the bulges of small black holes (∼10⁴⁻⁵ M_⊙), we do not find a significant population of super-Eddington AGN. Using estimates of the black hole sphere of influence from velocity dispersion, direct stellar and gas black hole mass measurements could be obtained with existing facilities for more than ∼100 BASS AGN.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Koss, Michael J.0000-0002-7998-9581
Trakhtenbrot, Benny0000-0002-3683-7297
Ricci, Claudio0000-0001-5231-2645
Oh, Kyuseok0000-0002-5037-951X
Bauer, Franz E.0000-0002-8686-8737
Stern, Daniel0000-0003-2686-9241
Caglar, Turgay0000-0002-9144-2255
den Brok, Jakob S.0000-0002-8760-6157
Mushotzky, Richard0000-0002-7962-5446
Ricci, Federica0000-0001-5742-5980
Mejía-Restrepo, Julian E.0000-0001-8450-7463
Lamperti, Isabella0000-0003-3336-5498
Treister, Ezequiel0000-0001-7568-6412
Bär, Rudolf E.0000-0001-5481-8607
Harrison, Fiona0000-0003-2992-8024
Powell, Meredith C.0000-0003-2284-8603
Privon, George C.0000-0003-3474-1125
Riffel, Rogério0000-0002-1321-1320
Rojas, Alejandra F.0000-0003-0006-8681
Schawinski, Kevin0000-0001-5464-0888
Urry, C. Megan0000-0002-0745-9792
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 January 12; revised 2022 February 11; accepted 2022 February 16; published 2022 July 15. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 2. We thank Vivian Baldassare and Amy Reines for their assistance with dwarf AGN masses. We acknowledge support from NASA through ADAP award NNH16CT03C (M.K.); the Israel Science Foundation through grant No. 1849/19 (B.T.); the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through grant agreement No. 950533 (B.T.); FONDECYT Regular 1190818 (E.T., F.E.B.) and 1200495 (E.T., F.E.B); FONDECYT Postdoctoral Fellowship 3210157 (A.R.); ANID grants CATA-Basal AFB-170002 (E.T., F.E.B.), ACE210002 (E.T., F.E.B.), and FB210003 (C.R., E.T., F.E.B.); ANID Anillo ACT172033 and Millennium Nucleus NCN19_058 (E.T.); Millennium Science Initiative Program ICN12_009 (F.E.B.); an ESO fellowship (M.H., J.M.); Fondecyt Iniciacion grant 11190831 (C.R.); the National Research Foundation of Korea grant NRF-2020R1C1C1005462 and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science ID 17321 (K.O.); Comunidad de Madrid through the Atracción de Talento Investigador Grant 2018-T1/TIC-11035 (I.L.); YCAA Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship (M.B.); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq; Proj. 311223/2020-6, 304927/2017-1, and 400352/2016-8); Fundação de amparo à pesquisa do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS; Proj. 16/2551-0000251-7 and 19/1750-2); and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES; Proj. 0001; R.R.). This work was performed in part at the Aspen Center for Physics, which is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-1607611. We acknowledge the work done by the Swift/BAT team and the 50+ BASS scientists to make this project possible. Some of the optical spectra were taken with DoubleSpec at Palomar via Yale (PI: M. Powell; 2017-2019, 16 nights), as well as Caltech (PI: F. Harrison) and JPL (PI: D. Stern) from programs from 2013–2021. This work made use of observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programs 0101.A-0765(A), 0101.B-0456(B), 0102.A-0433(A), 0102.B-0048, 0103.A-0521(A), 0103.A-0777(A), 0104.A-0353(A), 090.A-0830(A), 092.B-0083(A), 093.A-0766(A), 095.B-0059(A), 098.A-0635(B), 099.A-0403(A), 099.A-0403(B), 094.B-0321(A), 098.B-0551(A), 60.A-9421(A), and 60.A-9100(J). Based on observations from six CNTAC programs: CN2018A-104, CN2018B-83, CN2019A-70, CN2019B-77, CN2020A-90, and CN2020B-48 (PI: C. Ricci). Based on NOIRLab proposals (2012A-0463; PI: M. Trippe). Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovações (MCTI/LNA) do Brasil, the US National Science Foundation's NOIRLab, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This research has made use of NASA's ADS Service. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is The SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration, including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, the University of Tokyo, the University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, the University of Virginia, the University of Washington, and Yale University. Facilities: IRSA - , Keck:I (LRIS) - , Magellan:Clay - , Hale (Doublespec) - , Swift (BAT) - , VLT:Kueyen (X-Shooter) - , VLT:Antu (FORS2) - , SOAR (Goodman) - Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011).
Group:Astronomy Department, Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Israel Science Foundation1849/19
European Research Council (ERC)950533
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1190818
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1200495
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3210157
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)ACE210002
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)ACT172033
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)ICN12_009
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11190831
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2020R1C1C1005462
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17321
Comunidad de Madrid2018-T1/TIC-11035
Yale Center for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)311223/2020-6
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)304927/2017-1
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)400352/2016-8
Fundação de Amparo à pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)16/2551-0000251-7
Fundação de Amparo à pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)19/1750-2
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)0001
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Supermassive black holes; X-ray surveys; Sky surveys; X-ray active galactic nuclei; AGN host galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supermassive black holes (1663); X-ray surveys (1824); Sky surveys (1464); X-ray active galactic nuclei (2035); AGN host galaxies (2017)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220727-36815000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Michael J. Koss et al 2022 ApJS 261 6
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115902
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:29 Jul 2022 17:21
Last Modified:29 Jul 2022 17:24

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