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CLASSY III. The Properties of Starburst-driven Warm Ionized Outflows

Xu, Xinfeng and Heckman, Timothy and Henry, Alaina and Berg, Danielle A. and Chisholm, John and James, Bethan L. and Martin, Crystal L. and Stark, Daniel P. and Aloisi, Alessandra and Amorín, Ricardo O. and Arellano-Córdova, Karla Z. and Bordoloi, Rongmon and Charlot, Stéphane and Chen, Zuyi and Hayes, Matthew and Mingozzi, Matilde and Sugahara, Yuma and Kewley, Lisa J. and Ouchi, Masami and Scarlata, Claudia and Steidel, Charles C. (2022) CLASSY III. The Properties of Starburst-driven Warm Ionized Outflows. Astrophysical Journal, 933 (2). Art. No. 222. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac6d56.

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We report the results of analyses of galactic outflows in a sample of 45 low-redshift starburst galaxies in the COS Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY (CLASSY), augmented by five additional similar starbursts with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) data. The outflows are traced by blueshifted absorption lines of metals spanning a wide range of ionization potential. The high quality and broad spectral coverage of CLASSY data enable us to disentangle the absorption due to the static interstellar medium (ISM) from that due to outflows. We further use different line multiplets and doublets to determine the covering fraction, column density, and ionization state as a function of velocity for each outflow. We measure the outflow’s mean velocity and velocity width, and find that both correlate in a highly significant way with the star formation rate, galaxy mass, and circular velocity over ranges of four orders of magnitude for the first two properties. We also estimate outflow rates of metals, mass, momentum, and kinetic energy. We find that, at most, only about 20% of silicon created and ejected by supernovae in the starburst is carried out in the warm phase we observe. The outflows’ mass-loading factor increases steeply and inversely with both circular and outflow velocity (log–log slope ∼−1.6), and reaches ∼10 for dwarf galaxies. We find that the outflows typically carry about 10%–100% of the momentum injected by massive stars and about 1%–20% of the kinetic energy. We show that these results place interesting constraints on, and new insights into, models and simulations of galactic winds.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Xu, Xinfeng0000-0002-9217-7051
Heckman, Timothy0000-0001-6670-6370
Henry, Alaina0000-0002-6586-4446
Berg, Danielle A.0000-0002-4153-053X
Chisholm, John0000-0002-0302-2577
James, Bethan L.0000-0003-4372-2006
Martin, Crystal L.0000-0001-9189-7818
Stark, Daniel P.0000-0001-6106-5172
Aloisi, Alessandra0000-0003-4137-882X
Amorín, Ricardo O.0000-0001-5758-1000
Arellano-Córdova, Karla Z.0000-0003-2589-762X
Bordoloi, Rongmon0000-0002-3120-7173
Charlot, Stéphane0000-0003-3458-2275
Chen, Zuyi0000-0002-2178-5471
Hayes, Matthew0000-0001-8587-218X
Mingozzi, Matilde0000-0003-2589-762X
Sugahara, Yuma0000-0001-6958-7856
Kewley, Lisa J.0000-0001-8152-3943
Ouchi, Masami0000-0002-1049-6658
Scarlata, Claudia0000-0002-9136-8876
Steidel, Charles C.0000-0002-4834-7260
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 February 7; revised 2022 April 19; accepted 2022 May 4; published 2022 July 15. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The CLASSY team is grateful for the support of this program, HST-GO-15840, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associations of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. B.L.J. thanks the European Space Agency (ESA) for its support. The CLASSY Collaboration extends special gratitude to the Lorentz Center for useful discussions during the "Characterizing Galaxies with Spectroscopy with a view for JWST" 2017 workshop that led to the formation of the CLASSY Collaboration and survey. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration, including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University. This research has made use of the HSLA database, developed and maintained at STScI, Baltimore, MD, USA. We also thank the anonymous referee for the insightful comments on the paper. Facilities: HST (COS) - , LBT (MODS) - , APO (SDSS) - , KECK (ESI) - , VLT (MUSE - , VIMOS) - . Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018) BEAGLE (Chevallard & Charlot 2016), CalCOS (STScI), dustmaps (Green 2018), jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), MPFIT (Markwardt 2009), Photutils (Bradley et al. 2021), python (Van Rossum & Drake 2009), pysynphot (STScI Development Team 2013).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Galaxy evolution; Galaxy kinematics; Galaxy dynamics; Starburst galaxies; Ultraviolet astronomy; Galaxy spectroscopy; Galactic winds
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy evolution (594); Galaxy kinematics (602); Galaxy dynamics (591); Starburst galaxies (1570); Ultraviolet astronomy (1736); Galaxy spectroscopy (2171); Galactic winds (572)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220727-38096000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Xinfeng Xu et al 2022 ApJ 933 222
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115909
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:28 Jul 2022 23:17
Last Modified:28 Jul 2022 23:17

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