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International Asteroid Warning Network Timing Campaign: 2019 XS

Farnocchia, Davide and Reddy, Vishnu and Bauer, James M. and Warner, Elizabeth M. and Micheli, Marco and Payne, Matthew J. and Farnham, Tony and Kelley, Michael S. and Balam, David D. and Barkov, Anatoly P. and Berteşteanu, Daniel and Birlan, Mirel and Bolin, Bryce T. and Brucker, Melissa J. and Buzzi, Luca and Chambers, Kenneth C. and Demetz, Lukas and Djupvik, Anlaug A. and Elenin, Leonid and Fini, Paolo and Flynn, Randy and Galli, Gianni and Gao, Xing and Gȩdek, Marcin and Granvik, Mikael and Hasubick, Werner and Ivanov, Alexander L. and Ivanov, Viktor A. and Ivanova, Natalya V. and Jaques, Cristóvão and Kasikov, Anni and Kim, Myung-Jin and Lane, David and Lee, Hee-Jae and Li, Bin and Li, Fan and Lister, Tim and Lysenko, Vadim E. and Magnier, Eugene A. and Mahomed, Nawaz and McCormick, Jennie and Moon, Darrel and Nastasi, Alessandro and Nedelcu, Dan A. and Neue, Guenther and Petrescu, Elisabeta and Popescu, Marcel and Prosperi, Enrico and Reszelewski, Rafał and Roh, Dong-Goo and Romanov, Filipp D. and Santana-Ros, Toni and Schmalz, Anastasia and Schmalz, Sergei and Scotti, James V. and Seaman, Robert and Sioulas, Nick and Sonka, Adrian B. and Tholen, David J. and Trelia, Madalina M. and Wainscoat, Richard and Wang, Xin and Wells, Guy and Weryk, Robert and Yakovenko, Nikolai A. and Ye, Quanzhi and Yim, Hong-Suh and Zhai, Chengxing and Zhang, Chen and Zhao, Haibin and Zhu, Tinglei and Żołnowski, Michał (2022) International Asteroid Warning Network Timing Campaign: 2019 XS. Planetary Science Journal, 3 (7). Art. No. 156. ISSN 2632-3338. doi:10.3847/psj/ac7224.

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As part of the International Asteroid Warning Network's observational exercises, we conducted a campaign to observe near-Earth asteroid 2019 XS around its close approach to Earth on 2021 November 9. The goal of the campaign was to characterize errors in the observation times reported to the Minor Planet Center, which become an increasingly important consideration as astrometric accuracy improves and more fast-moving asteroids are observed. As part of the exercise, a total of 957 astrometric observations of 2019 XS during the encounter were reported and subsequently were analyzed to obtain the corresponding residuals. While the timing errors are typically smaller than 1 s, the reported times appear to be negatively biased, i.e., they are generally earlier than they should be. We also compared the observer-provided position uncertainty with the cross-track residuals, which are independent of timing errors. A large fraction of the estimated uncertainties appear to be optimistic, especially when <0.″2. We compiled individual reports for each observer to help identify and remove the root cause of any possible timing error and improve the uncertainty quantification process. We suggest possible sources of timing errors and describe a simple procedure to derive reliable, conservative position uncertainties.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Farnocchia, Davide0000-0003-0774-884X
Reddy, Vishnu0000-0002-7743-3491
Bauer, James M.0000-0001-9542-0953
Warner, Elizabeth M.0000-0003-1147-4474
Micheli, Marco0000-0001-7895-8209
Payne, Matthew J.0000-0001-5133-6303
Farnham, Tony0000-0002-4767-9861
Kelley, Michael S.0000-0002-6702-7676
Birlan, Mirel0000-0003-3495-8535
Bolin, Bryce T.0000-0002-4950-6323
Brucker, Melissa J.0000-0002-2079-179X
Chambers, Kenneth C.0000-0001-6965-7789
Djupvik, Anlaug A.0000-0001-6316-9880
Elenin, Leonid0000-0001-9336-9648
Flynn, Randy0000-0002-4562-2204
Granvik, Mikael0000-0002-5624-1888
Kim, Myung-Jin0000-0002-4787-6769
Lane, David0000-0002-6097-8719
Lee, Hee-Jae0000-0002-6839-075X
Li, Bin0000-0001-9327-0920
Lister, Tim0000-0002-3818-7769
Magnier, Eugene A.0000-0002-7965-2815
Nedelcu, Dan A.0000-0001-5684-9896
Popescu, Marcel0000-0001-8585-204X
Roh, Dong-Goo0000-0001-6104-4304
Romanov, Filipp D.0000-0002-5268-7735
Santana-Ros, Toni0000-0002-0143-9440
Schmalz, Sergei0000-0001-5783-3888
Seaman, Robert0000-0001-9385-8978
Sioulas, Nick0000-0002-2012-1227
Sonka, Adrian B.0000-0001-5465-5449
Tholen, David J.0000-0003-0773-1888
Trelia, Madalina M.0000-0003-2362-4230
Wainscoat, Richard0000-0002-1341-0952
Wells, Guy0000-0002-6667-6535
Weryk, Robert0000-0002-0439-9341
Ye, Quanzhi0000-0002-4838-7676
Yim, Hong-Suh0000-0001-5484-4741
Zhai, Chengxing0000-0002-0291-4522
Zhang, Chen0000-0002-9583-263X
Zhu, Tinglei0000-0002-0850-8824
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 April 7; revised 2022 May 17; accepted 2022 May 19; published 2022 July 13. We thank two anonymous referees for their useful comments that helped improve the paper. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). This research has made use of data and services provided by the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), managed at the University of Maryland, and funded by NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office through PDS cooperative agreement 80NSSC22M0024 and UMD-SAO sub-award 106075-Z6415201. Part of this work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research—UEFISCDI, project No. PN-III-P1-1.1-TE-2019-1504. Part of this work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, PNIII-P2-1214/25.10.2021. Part of this work was supported by NASA YORPD grant 80NSSC21K0657. We thank Prof. Philip Choi, Nez Evans, and the student team at the Pomona College for taking the data; Navtej Saini, Mike Shao, Russell Trahan, and Max Zhan at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the instrument and software support; and the NASA ROSES YORPD program (80NM0018F0612) that supported the Table Mountain Observatory, Wrightwood-PHMC participation of this timing campaign. Partly based on data from the NEOSSat satellite, a joint mission of the Canadian Space Agency and Defence Research and Development Canada, with contributions from Microsat Systems Canada Inc., the University of Calgary, Bishop's University, and the National Research Council of Canada. The Joan Oró Telescope of the Montsec Observatory is owned by the Catalan Government and operated by the Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia. Part of this work was funded by the NEO-MAPP project (H2020-EU-2-1-6/870377). This work was partially funded by the Spanish MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by "ERDF A way of making Europe" by the European Union through grant RTI2018-095076-B-C21, and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences University of Barcelona (ICCUB, Unidad de Excelencia 'María de Maeztu') through grant CEX2019-000918-M. Part of this work was supported by the Space debris and NEO research project (KJSP2020020204, KJSP2020020102, and KJSP2020020101) and the Minor Planet Foundation. Pan-STARRS is a project of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii and is supported by the NASA SSO Near-Earth Observation Program under grant 80NSSC21K1572 and by the state of Hawaii. Partly based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by Caltech Optical Observatories, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, and the University of Washington. Partly based on observations from the Las Cumbres Observatory global telescope network. Some observations in this paper are based on observations made with the MuSCAT3 instrument, developed by the Astrobiology Center and under financial supports by JSPS KAKENHI (JP18H05439) and JST PRESTO (JPMJPR1775), at Faulkes Telescope North on Maui, HI, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory. The Ningbo Bureau of Education and Xinjiang Observatory Telescope is funded by Ningbo Bureau of Education and operated by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. Part of this work was supported by NASA grant 80NSSC21K0807. This paper was partially based on observations obtained at the OWL-Net system, which is operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Partly based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku, and the University of Oslo, representing Denmark, Finland, and Norway, the University of Iceland and Stockholm University at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and the data were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOT. Copyright 2022. California Institute of Technology.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of Maryland106075-Z6415201
Romain National Authority for Scientific ResearchPN-III-P1-1.1-TE-2019-1504
Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research (Romania)PNIII-P2-1214/25.10.2021
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
Defence Research and Development CanadaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)870377
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033
European Regional Development FundRTI2018-095076-B-C21
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000918-M
China National Space AdministrationKJSP2020020204
China National Space AdministrationKJSP2020020102
China National Space AdministrationKJSP2020020101
Minor Planet Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
State of HawaiiUNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
Ningbo Bureau of EducationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Asteroids; Near-Earth objects; Optical telescopes; Astrometry
Issue or Number:7
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Asteroids (72); Near-Earth objects (1092); Optical telescopes (1174); Astrometry (80)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220727-38904000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Davide Farnocchia et al 2022 Planet. Sci. J. 3 156
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:115924
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:27 Jul 2022 22:37
Last Modified:27 Jul 2022 22:37

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