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TESS discovery of a sub-Neptune orbiting a mid-M dwarf TOI-2136

Gan, Tianjun and Soubkiou, Abderahmane and Wang, Sharon X. and Benkhaldoun, Zouhair and Mao, Shude and Artigau, Étienne and Fouqué, Pascal and Arnold, Luc and Giacalone, Steven and Theissen, Christopher A. and Aganze, Christian and Burgasser, Adam and Collins, Karen A. and Shporer, Avi and Barkaoui, Khalid and Ghachoui, Mourad and Howell, Steve B. and Lamman, Claire and Demangeon, Olivier D. S. and Burdanov, Artem and Cadieux, Charles and Chouqar, Jamila and Collins, Kevin I. and Cook, Neil J. and Delrez, Laetitia and Demory, Brice-Olivier and Doyon, René and Dransfield, Georgina and Dressing, Courtney D. and Ducrot, Elsa and Fan, Jiahao and Garcia, Lionel and Gill, Holden and Gillon, Michaël and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen and Günther, Maximilian N. and Henze, Christopher E. and Huang, Chelsea X. and Jehin, Emmanuel and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Lin, Zitao and Manset, Nadine and McCormac, James and Murray, Catriona A. and Niraula, Prajwal and Pedersen, Peter P. and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Queloz, Didier and Rackham, Benjamin V. and Savel, Arjun B. and Schanche, Nicole and Schwarz, Richard P. and Sebastian, Daniel and Thompson, Samantha and Timmermans, Mathilde and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Vezie, Michael and Wells, Robert D. and de Wit, Julien and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. (2022) TESS discovery of a sub-Neptune orbiting a mid-M dwarf TOI-2136. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 514 (3). pp. 4120-4139. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1448.

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We present the discovery of TOI-2136 b, a sub-Neptune planet transiting a nearby M4.5V-type star every 7.85 d, identified through photometric measurements from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. The host star is located 33 pc away with a radius of R* = 0.34 ± 0.02 R_⊙, a mass of 0.34 ± 0.02 M_⊙⁠, and an effective temperature of 3342 ± 100 K. We estimate its stellar rotation period to be 75 ± 5 d based on archival long-term photometry. We confirm and characterize the planet based on a series of ground-based multiwavelength photometry, high-angular-resolution imaging observations, and precise radial velocities from Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)/SpectroPolarimètre InfraROUge (SPIRou). Our joint analysis reveals that the planet has a radius of 2.20 ± 0.17 R_⊕ and a mass of 6.4 ± 2.4 M_⊕. The mass and radius of TOI-2136 b are consistent with a broad range of compositions, from water-ice to gas-dominated worlds. TOI-2136 b falls close to the radius valley for M dwarfs predicted by thermally driven atmospheric mass-loss models, making it an interesting target for future studies of its interior structure and atmospheric properties.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemPhotometric data
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Wang, Sharon X.0000-0002-6937-9034
Benkhaldoun, Zouhair0000-0001-6285-9847
Mao, Shude0000-0001-8317-2788
Artigau, Étienne0000-0003-3506-5667
Fouqué, Pascal0000-0002-1436-7351
Arnold, Luc0000-0002-0111-1234
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Theissen, Christopher A.0000-0002-9807-5435
Aganze, Christian0000-0003-2094-9128
Burgasser, Adam0000-0002-6523-9536
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Lamman, Claire0000-0002-6731-9329
Demangeon, Olivier D. S.0000-0001-7918-0355
Burdanov, Artem0000-0001-9892-2406
Cadieux, Charles0000-0001-9291-5555
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Cook, Neil J.0000-0003-4166-4121
Delrez, Laetitia0000-0001-6108-4808
Demory, Brice-Olivier0000-0002-9355-5165
Doyon, René0000-0001-5485-4675
Dransfield, Georgina0000-0002-3937-630X
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Ducrot, Elsa0000-0002-7008-6888
Gill, Holden0000-0001-6171-7951
Gillon, Michaël0000-0003-1462-7739
Gnilka, Crystal L.0000-0003-2519-6161
Günther, Maximilian N.0000-0002-3164-9086
Henze, Christopher E.0000-0003-3216-0626
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Jehin, Emmanuel0000-0001-8923-488X
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
McCormac, James0000-0003-1631-4170
Murray, Catriona A.0000-0001-8504-5862
Niraula, Prajwal0000-0002-8052-3893
Pozuelos, Francisco J.0000-0003-1572-7707
Queloz, Didier0000-0002-3012-0316
Rackham, Benjamin V.0000-0002-3627-1676
Savel, Arjun B.0000-0002-2454-768X
Schanche, Nicole0000-0002-9526-3780
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.0000-0002-5510-8751
Vezie, Michael0000-0002-7930-1775
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Received: 21 February 2022. Revision received: 27 April 2022. Accepted: 20 May 2022. Published: 30 May 2022. Corrected and typeset: 29 June 2022. We are grateful to Coel Hellier for the insights regarding the WASP data. We thank Ryan Cloutier for useful discussions. We also thank Elise Furlan for the contributions to the speckle data. This work is partly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos 11390372, 11761131004, and12133005 to SM and TG). ASo was supported by a grant from the MOBILE 2 BE project, coordinated by the University of Porto in the framework of the European Programme Erasmus plus. BVR thanks the Heising-Simons Foundation for support. YGMC is supported by UNAM-PAPIIT-IG101321. CXH’s work is supported by ARC DECRA Grant. ODSD is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by FCT. This research uses data obtained through the China’s Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the TAP member institutes. This work uses observations obtained with SPIRou, an international project led by Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We further acknowledge that Lick Observatory sits on the unceded ancestral homelands of the Chochenyo and Tamyen Ohlone peoples, including the Alson and Socostac tribes, who were the original inhabitants of the area that includes Mt. Hamilton. This publication benefits from the support of the French Community of Belgium in the context of the FRIA Doctoral Grant awarded to MT. The research leading to these results has received funding from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Federation Wallonia-Brussels. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant PDR T.0120.21. TRAPPIST-North is a project funded by the University of Liège (Belgium), in collaboration with Cadi Ayyad University of Marrakech (Morocco). MG and EJ are F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. CL is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE1745303. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument ‘Alopeke obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal Number: GN/S-2021A-LP-105. ‘Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. ‘Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North (and/or South) telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF’s OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. The ULiege’s contribution to SPECULOOS has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) (grant agreement no. 336480/SPECULOOS), from the Balzan Prize Foundation, from the Belgian Scientific Research Foundation (F.R.S. - FNRS; grant no. T.0109.20), from the University of Liège, and from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Federation Wallonia-Brussels. LD is an F.R.S. - FNRS Post-doctoral Researcher. VVG is F.R.S - FNRS Research Associate. This work is supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation (PI: Queloz, grant number 327127). JdW and MT gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Heising-Simons Foundation, Dr Colin Masson, and Dr Peter A. Gilman for Artemis, the first telescope of the SPECULOOS network situated in Tenerife, Spain. MNG acknowledges support from the European Space Agency (ESA) as an ESA Research Fellow. This work is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-163967, PP00P2-190080 and the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS). This work has received fund from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (grant agreement no. 803193/BEBOP), from the MERAC Foundation, and from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC; grant no. ST/S00193X/1). This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) and Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) via COMPETE2020 through the research grants UIDB/04434/2020, UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017, POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017, and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953. The National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas (POSS-I) was made by the California Institute of Technology with grants from the National Geographic Society. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of TESS public data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work made use of TPFPLOTTER by J. Lillo-Box (publicly available in, which also made use of the PYTHON packages ASTROPY, LIGHTKURVE, MATPLOTLIB, and NUMPY. Based on observations obtained at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) that is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. The observations at the CFHT were performed with care and respect from the summit of Maunakea that is a significant cultural and historic site. DATA AVAILABILITY. This paper includes photometric data collected by the TESS mission and ground instruments, which are publicly available in ExoFOP, at = 336128819. All spectroscopy data underlying this paper are listed in the Appendix. All of the high-resolution speckle imaging data are available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive with no proprietary period.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Science Foundation of China11390372
National Science Foundation of China11761131004
National Science Foundation of China12133005
University of PortoUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoUNAM-PAPIIT-IG101321
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)PDR T.0120.21
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)T.0109.20
University of LiègeUNSPECIFIED
Cadi Ayyad UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745303
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)336480
Balzan Prize FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Simons Foundation327127
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)PP00P2-163967
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)PP00P2-190080
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)803193
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00193X/1
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
National Geographic SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planets and satellites: detection, stars: individual: TIC 336128819 – TOI-2136, planetary systems
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-742458000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Tianjun Gan, Abderahmane Soubkiou, Sharon X Wang, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Shude Mao, Étienne Artigau, Pascal Fouqué, Luc Arnold, Steven Giacalone, Christopher A Theissen, Christian Aganze, Adam Burgasser, Karen A Collins, Avi Shporer, Khalid Barkaoui, Mourad Ghachoui, Steve B Howell, Claire Lamman, Olivier D S Demangeon, Artem Burdanov, Charles Cadieux, Jamila Chouqar, Kevin I Collins, Neil J Cook, Laetitia Delrez, Brice-Olivier Demory, René Doyon, Georgina Dransfield, Courtney D Dressing, Elsa Ducrot, Jiahao Fan, Lionel Garcia, Holden Gill, Michaël Gillon, Crystal L Gnilka, Yilen Gómez Maqueo Chew, Maximilian N Günther, Christopher E Henze, Chelsea X Huang, Emmanuel Jehin, Eric L N Jensen, Zitao Lin, Nadine Manset, James McCormac, Catriona A Murray, Prajwal Niraula, Peter P Pedersen, Francisco J Pozuelos, Didier Queloz, Benjamin V Rackham, Arjun B Savel, Nicole Schanche, Richard P Schwarz, Daniel Sebastian, Samantha Thompson, Mathilde Timmermans, Amaury H M J Triaud, Michael Vezie, Robert D Wells, Julien de Wit, George R Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, David W Latham, Sara Seager, Joshua N Winn, Jon M Jenkins, TESS discovery of a sub-Neptune orbiting a mid-M dwarf TOI-2136, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 514, Issue 3, August 2022, Pages 4120–4139,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116013
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Aug 2022 22:12
Last Modified:02 Aug 2022 22:12

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