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Preparing for low surface brightness science with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory: Characterization of tidal features from mock images

Martin, G. and Bazkiaei, A. E. and Spavone, M. and Iodice, E. and Mihos, J. C. and Montes, M. and Benavides, J. A. and Brough, S. and Carlin, J. L. and Collins, C. A. and Duc, P. A. and Gómez, F. A. and Galaz, G. and Hernández-Toledo, H. M. and Jackson, R. A. and Kaviraj, S. and Knapen, J. H. and Martínez-Lombilla, C. and McGee, S. and O’Ryan, D. and Prole, D. J. and Rich, R. M. and Román, J. and Shah, E. A. and Starkenburg, T. K. and Watkins, A. E. and Zaritsky, D. and Pichon, C. and Armus, L. and Bianconi, M. and Buitrago, F. and Busá, I. and Davis, F. and Demarco, R. and Desmons, A. and Garcia, P. and Graham, A. W. and Holwerda, B. and Hon, D. S.-H and Khalid, A. and Klehammer, J. and Klutse, D. Y. and Lazar, I. and Nair, P. and Noakes-Kettel, E. A. and Rutkowski, M. and Saha, K. and Sahu, N. and Sola, E. and Vázquez-Mata, J. A. and Vera-Casanova, A. and Yoon, I. (2022) Preparing for low surface brightness science with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory: Characterization of tidal features from mock images. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 513 (1). pp. 1459-1487. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1003. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-743092000

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Abstract

Tidal features in the outskirts of galaxies yield unique information about their past interactions and are a key prediction of the hierarchical structure formation paradigm. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is poised to deliver deep observations for potentially millions of objects with visible tidal features, but the inference of galaxy interaction histories from such features is not straightforward. Utilizing automated techniques and human visual classification in conjunction with realistic mock images produced using the NewHorizon cosmological simulation, we investigate the nature, frequency, and visibility of tidal features and debris across a range of environments and stellar masses. In our simulated sample, around 80 per cent of the flux in the tidal features around Milky Way or greater mass galaxies is detected at the 10-yr depth of the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (30–31 mag arcsec⁻²), falling to 60 per cent assuming a shallower final depth of 29.5 mag arcsec⁻². The fraction of total flux found in tidal features increases towards higher masses, rising to 10 per cent for the most massive objects in our sample (M⋆ ∼ 10^(11.5) M_⊙). When observed at sufficient depth, such objects frequently exhibit many distinct tidal features with complex shapes. The interpretation and characterization of such features varies significantly with image depth and object orientation, introducing significant biases in their classification. Assuming the data reduction pipeline is properly optimized, we expect the Rubin Observatory to be capable of recovering much of the flux found in the outskirts of Milky Way mass galaxies, even at intermediate redshifts (z < 0.2).


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac1003DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.07675arXivDiscussion Paper
https://new.horizon-simulation.org/data.htmlRelated ItemSimulation data
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Martin, G.0000-0003-2939-8668
Spavone, M.0000-0002-6427-7039
Montes, M.0000-0001-7847-0393
Benavides, J. A.0000-0003-1896-0424
Brough, S.0000-0002-9796-1363
Carlin, J. L.0000-0002-3936-9628
Duc, P. A.0000-0003-3343-6284
Gómez, F. A.0000-0003-4232-8584
Jackson, R. A.0000-0003-3254-4873
Kaviraj, S.0000-0002-5601-575X
Martínez-Lombilla, C.0000-0002-6068-514X
Rich, R. M.0000-0003-0427-8387
Román, J.0000-0002-3849-3467
Watkins, A. E.0000-0003-4859-3290
Zaritsky, D.0000-0002-5177-727X
Armus, L.0000-0003-3498-2973
Bianconi, M.0000-0002-0427-5373
Buitrago, F.0000-0002-2861-9812
Busá, I.0000-0003-2876-3563
Davis, F.0000-0002-8522-4980
Demarco, R.0000-0003-3921-2177
Garcia, P.0000-0002-1678-3535
Holwerda, B.0000-0002-4884-6756
Vázquez-Mata, J. A.0000-0001-8694-1204
Vera-Casanova, A.0000-0003-4312-3679
Yoon, I.0000-0001-9163-0064
Alternate Title:Preparing for low surface brightness science with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory: characterisation of tidal features from mock images
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Received: 08 December 2021. Revision received: 01 April 2022. Accepted: 07 April 2022. Published: 11 April 2022. GM thanks Peter Yoachim for sharing theoretical results for LSST surface brightness metrics and Yohan Dubois for fruitful discussion. JAB acknowledge financial support from CONICET through PIP 11220170100527CO grant. JLC acknowledges support from National Science Foundation (NSF) grant AST-1816196. CAC acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Research Council under grant ST/S006095/1 and LJMU. FAG acknowledges financial support from FONDECYT Regular 1211370 and from the Max Planck Society through a Partner Group grant. GG gratefully acknowledges support by the ANID BASAL projects ACE210002 and FB210003. RAJ acknowledges support from the Yonsei University Research Fund (Yonsei Frontier Lab. Young Researcher Supporting Program) of 2021 and from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-2020R1A2C3003769). SK acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/S00615X/1] and a Senior Research Fellowship from Worcester College Oxford. JHK acknowledges financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network, from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grant ‘The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions’ with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033, and from IAC project P/300724, financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment, through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. DJP acknowledges funding from an Australian Research Council Discovery Program grant DP190102448. JR acknowledges support from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grant ‘The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions’ with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033. EAS thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation. AEW acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/S00615X/1]. MB acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council through grant number ST/N021702/1. FB acknowledges support grants PID2020-116188GA-I00 and PID2019-107427GB-C32 from The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. FD acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/V506709/1]. RD gratefully acknowledges support by the ANID BASAL projects ACE210002 and FB210003. This work has made use of the Horizon cluster on which the simulation was post-processed, hosted by the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris. We warmly thank S. Rouberol for running it smoothly. The authors thank the referee, Andrew Cooper, for a detailed and constructive report which helped improve the final paper. DATA AVAILABILITY. The simulation data analysed in this paper were provided by the NEWHORIZON collaboration. The data will be shared on request to the corresponding author, with the permission of the NEWHORIZON collaboration or may be requested from https://new.horizon-simulation.org/data.html.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)PIP 11220170100527CO
NSFAST-1816196
Science and Technology Research CouncilST/S006095/1
Liverpool John Moores UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1211370
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)ACE210002
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
Yonsei UniversityUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2020R1A2C3003769
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00615X/1
Worcester College OxfordUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship721463
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónPID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)P/300724
Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and EmploymentUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilDP190102448
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
NSFOAC-1829740
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N021702/1
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2020-116188GA-I00
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107427GB-C32
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V506709/1
Subject Keywords:methods: numerical, galaxies: interactions, galaxies: structure
Issue or Number:1
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stac1003
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-743092000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-743092000
Official Citation:G Martin, A E Bazkiaei, M Spavone, E Iodice, J C Mihos, M Montes, J A Benavides, S Brough, J L Carlin, C A Collins, P A Duc, F A Gómez, G Galaz, H M Hernández-Toledo, R A Jackson, S Kaviraj, J H Knapen, C Martínez-Lombilla, S McGee, D O’Ryan, D J Prole, R M Rich, J Román, E A Shah, T K Starkenburg, A E Watkins, D Zaritsky, C Pichon, L Armus, M Bianconi, F Buitrago, I Busá, F Davis, R Demarco, A Desmons, P García, A W Graham, B Holwerda, D S -H Hon, A Khalid, J Klehammer, D Y Klutse, I Lazar, P Nair, E A Noakes-Kettel, M Rutkowski, K Saha, N Sahu, E Sola, J A Vázquez-Mata, A Vera-Casanova, I Yoon, Preparing for low surface brightness science with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory: Characterization of tidal features from mock images, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 513, Issue 1, June 2022, Pages 1459–1487, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac1003
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116020
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Aug 2022 20:49
Last Modified:11 Aug 2022 18:36

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