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Analytic Approach to the Late Stages of Giant Planet Formation

Adams, Fred C. and Batygin, Konstantin (2022) Analytic Approach to the Late Stages of Giant Planet Formation. Astrophysical Journal, 934 (2). Art. No. 111. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7a3e.

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This paper constructs an analytic description for the late stages of giant planet formation. During this phase of evolution, the planet gains the majority of its final mass through gas accretion at a rapid rate. This work determines the density and velocity fields for material falling onto the central planet and its circumplanetary disk, and finds the corresponding column density of this infalling envelope. We derive a steady-state solution for the surface density of the disk as a function of its viscosity (including the limiting case where no disk accretion occurs). Planetary magnetic fields truncate the inner edge of the disk and determine the boundary conditions for mass accretion onto the planet from both direct infall and from the disk. The properties of the forming planet and its circumplanetary disk are determined, including the luminosity contributions from infall onto the planet and disk surfaces, and from disk viscosity. The radiative signature of the planet formation process is explored using a quasi-spherical treatment of the emergent spectral energy distributions. The analytic solutions developed herein show how the protoplanet properties (envelope density distribution, velocity field, column density, disk surface density, luminosity, and radiative signatures) vary with input parameters (instantaneous mass, orbital location, accretion rate, and planetary magnetic field strength).

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Adams, Fred C.0000-0002-8167-1767
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 February 25; revised 2022 April 8; accepted 2022 June 17; published 2022 July 29. We are grateful to A. Adams, M. Meyer, and D. Stevenson for useful discussions. We thank an anonymous referee for many helpful comments. This work was supported by the University of Michigan, Caltech, the Leinweber Center for Theoretical Physics, and by the David the Lucile Packard Foundation.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
Leinweber Center for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Planet formation; Protoplanetary disks; Planetary system formation; Solar system formation
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Planet formation (1241); Protoplanetary disks (1300); Planetary system formation (1257); Solar system formation (1530)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-730784000
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Official Citation:Fred C. Adams and Konstantin Batygin 2022 ApJ 934 111
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116040
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Aug 2022 17:02
Last Modified:02 Aug 2022 17:02

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