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The ALMA REBELS Survey: Average [C ii] 158 μm Sizes of Star-forming Galaxies from z ∼ 7 to z ∼ 4

Fudamoto, Y. and Smit, R. and Bowler, R. A. A. and Oesch, P. A. and Bouwens, R. and Stefanon, M. and Inami, H. and Endsley, R. and Gonzalez, V. and Schouws, S. and Stark, D. and Algera, H. S. B. and Aravena, M. and Barrufet, L. and da Cunha, E. and Dayal, P. and Ferrara, A. and Graziani, L. and Hodge, J. A. and Hygate, A. P. S. and Inoue, A. K. and Nanayakkara, T. and Pallottini, A. and Pizzati, E. and Schneider, R. and Sommovigo, L. and Sugahara, Y. and Topping, M. and van der Werf, P. and Bethermin, M. and Cassata, P. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Ibar, E. and Faisst, A. L. and Fujimoto, S. and Ginolfi, M. and Hathi, N. and Jones, G. C. and Pozzi, F. and Schaerer, D. (2022) The ALMA REBELS Survey: Average [C ii] 158 μm Sizes of Star-forming Galaxies from z ∼ 7 to z ∼ 4. Astrophysical Journal, 934 (2). Art. No. 144. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7a47.

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We present the average [C ii] 158 μm emission line sizes of UV-bright star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 7. Our results are derived from a stacking analysis of [C ii] 158 μm emission lines and dust continua observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), taking advantage of the large program Reionization Era Bright Emission Line Survey. We find that the average [C ii] emission at z ∼ 7 has an effective radius rₑ of 2.2 ± 0.2 kpc. It is ≳ 2× larger than the dust continuum and the rest-frame UV emission, in agreement with recently reported measurements for z ≲ 6 galaxies. Additionally, we compared the average [C ii] size with 4 z ii] at Early times (ALPINE). By analyzing [C ii] sizes of 4 z ii] size of rₑ = 2.2 ± 0.2 kpc and rₑ = 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc for z ∼ 5.5 and z ∼ 4.5 galaxies, respectively. These measurements show that star-forming galaxies, on average, show no evolution in the size of the [C ii] 158 μm emitting regions at redshift between z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 4. This finding suggests that the star-forming galaxies could be morphologically dominated by gas over a wide redshift range.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Smit, R.0000-0001-8034-7802
Bowler, R. A. A.0000-0003-3917-1678
Oesch, P. A.0000-0001-5851-6649
Bouwens, R.0000-0002-4989-2471
Stefanon, M.0000-0001-7768-5309
Inami, H.0000-0003-4268-0393
Endsley, R.0000-0003-4564-2771
Gonzalez, V.0000-0002-3120-0510
Schouws, S.0000-0001-9746-0924
Stark, D.0000-0001-6106-5172
Algera, H. S. B.0000-0002-4205-9567
Aravena, M.0000-0002-6290-3198
Barrufet, L.0000-0003-1641-6185
da Cunha, E.0000-0001-9759-4797
Dayal, P.0000-0001-8460-1564
Ferrara, A.0000-0002-9400-7312
Graziani, L.0000-0002-9231-1505
Hodge, J. A.0000-0001-6586-8845
Hygate, A. P. S.0000-0002-6488-471X
Inoue, A. K.0000-0002-7779-8677
Nanayakkara, T.0000-0003-2804-0648
Pizzati, E.0000-0002-9712-0038
Schneider, R.0000-0001-9317-2888
Sugahara, Y.0000-0001-6958-7856
Topping, M.0000-0001-8426-1141
van der Werf, P.0000-0001-5434-5942
Bethermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Faisst, A. L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Fujimoto, S.0000-0001-7201-5066
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-9122-1700
Hathi, N.0000-0001-6145-5090
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Alternate Title:The ALMA REBELS Survey: Average [CII] 158μm sizes of Star-Forming Galaxies from z∼7 to z∼4, Average [CII] 158μm sizes of Star-Forming Galaxies between z∼7 and z∼4
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 March 25; revised 2022 May 27; accepted 2022 June 16; published 2022 August 2. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.1.01634.L, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2018.1.00085.;S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00428.L, and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.01111.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. Y.F., Y.S., and A.K.I. acknowledge support from NAOJ ALMA Scientific Research grant No. 2020-16B. P.A.O. and L.B. acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation through the SNSF Professorship grant 190079 "Galaxy Buildup at Cosmic Dawn". S.S. acknowledges support from the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA). R.S. acknowledges support from STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowships and grant No. ST/S004831/1. R.B. acknowledges support from an STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship grant No. ST/T003596/1. R.E. acknowledges funding from JWST/NIRCam contract to the University of Arizona, NAS5-02015. H.I. and H.S.B.A. acknowledge support from the NAOJ ALMA Scientific Research grant No. 2021-19A. H.I. acknowledges support from the JSPS KAKENHI grant No. JP19K23462. J.H. gratefully acknowledges support of the VIDI research program with project number 639.042.611, which is (partly) financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). M.A. acknowledges support from FONDECYT grant 1211951, "CONICYT + PCI + INSTITUTO MAX PLANCK DE ASTRONOMIA MPG190030" and "CONICYT+PCI+REDES 190194" and ANID BASAL project FB210003. P.D. acknowledges support from the European Research Council's starting grant ERC StG-717001 ("DELPHI"), from the NWO grant 016.VIDI.189.162 ("ODIN") and the European Commission's and University of Groningen's CO-FUND Rosalind Franklin program. L.G. and R.S. acknowledge support from the Amaldi Research Center funded by the MIUR program "Dipartimento di Eccellenza" (CUP:B81I18001170001). A.F. acknowledges support from the ERC Advanced Grant INTERSTELLAR H2020/740120. Partial support from the Carl Friedrich von Siemens-Forschungspreis der Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Research Award is kindly acknowledged (A.F.). I.D.L. acknowledges support from ERC starting grant 851622 DustOrigin. J.W. acknowledges support from the ERC Advanced Grant 695671, "QUENCH", and from the Fondation MERAC. G.C.J. acknowledges funding from the "FirstGalaxies" Advanced grant from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant agreement No. 789056). The Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN) is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. E.I. acknowledge funding by ANID FONDECYT Regular 1221846.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan2020-16B
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)190079
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor de Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S004831/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T003596/1
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan2021-19A
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19K23462
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.042.611
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1211951
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
European Research Council (ERC)717001
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)016.189.162
University of GroningenUNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)B81I18001170001
European Research Council (ERC)740120
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)851622
European Research Council (ERC)695671
European Research Council (ERC)789056
Danish National Research Foundation140
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)MPG190030
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)190194
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1221846
Subject Keywords:High-redshift galaxies; Interstellar medium; Submillimeter astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: High-redshift galaxies (734); Interstellar medium (847); Submillimeter astronomy (1647)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220803-224717000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Y. Fudamoto et al 2022 ApJ 934 144
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116067
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 Aug 2022 17:17
Last Modified:04 Aug 2022 17:17

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