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Resolving the Inner Parsec of the Blazar J1924–2914 with the Event Horizon Telescope

Issaoun, Sara and Wielgus, Maciek and Jorstad, Svetlana and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Blackburn, Lindy and Janssen, Michael and Chan, Chi-kwan and Pesce, Dominic W. and Gómez, José L. and Akiyama, Kazunori and Mościbrodzka, Monika and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Chael, Andrew and Lico, Rocco and Liu, Jun and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Lisakov, Mikhail and Fuentes, Antonio and Zhao, Guang-Yao and Moriyama, Kotaro and Broderick, Avery E. and Tiede, Paul and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Traianou, Efthalia and Loinard, Laurent and Davelaar, Jordy and Gurwell, Mark and Lu, Ru-Sen and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Algaba, Juan Carlos and Anantua, Richard and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Bach, Uwe and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bauböck, Michi and Benson, Bradford A. and Bintley, Dan and Blundell, Raymond and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Boyce, Hope and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Bustamante, Sandra and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Ceccobello, Chiara and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chatterjee, Shami and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conroy, Nicholas S. and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro and Cui, Yuzhu and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Dhruv, Vedant and Dzib Quijano, Sergio Abraham and Eatough, Ralph P. and Emami, Razieh and Falcke, Heino and Farah, Joseph and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Ford, H. Alyson and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Freeman, William T. and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Hada, Kazuhiro and Haggard, Daryl and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette and Inoue, Makoto and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra and Johnson, Michael D. and Joshi, Abhishek V. and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Dong-Jin and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Jongsoo and Kim, Junhan and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Kocherlakota, Prashant and Kofuji, Yutaro and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Carsten and Kramer, Michael and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Bella, Noemi La and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Daeyoung and Lee, Sang-Sung and Leung, Po Kin and Levis, Aviad and Li, Zhiyuan and Lico, Rocco and Lindahl, Greg and Lindqvist, Michael and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Lonsdale, Colin and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Michalik, Daniel and Mizuno, Izumi and Mizuno, Yosuke and Moran, James M. and Müller, Cornelia and Mus, Alejandro and Musoke, Gibwa and Myserlis, Ioannis and Nadolski, Andrew and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Nathanail, Antonios and Neilsen, Joey and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Nowak, Michael A. and Oh, Junghwan and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Paraschos, Georgios Filippos and Park, Jongho and Parsons, Harriet and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Pötzl, Felix M. and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ricarte, Angelo and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Romero-Canizales, Cristina and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruiz, Ignacio and Ruszczyk, Chet and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sanchez-Portal, Miguel and Sasada, Mahito and Satapathy, Kaushik and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Souccar, Kamal and Sun, He and Tazaki, Fumie and Tetarenko, Alexandra J. and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Trippe, Sascha and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Vos, Jesse and Wagner, Jan and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wiik, Kaj and Witzel, Gunther and Wondrak, Michael and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yamaguchi, Paul and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhang, Shuo and Zhao, Shan-Shan (2022) Resolving the Inner Parsec of the Blazar J1924–2914 with the Event Horizon Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 934 (2). Art. No. 145. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7a40. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220803-224807000

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Abstract

The blazar J1924–2914 is a primary Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) calibrator for the Galactic center’s black hole Sagittarius A*. Here we present the first total and linearly polarized intensity images of this source obtained with the unprecedented 20 μas resolution of the EHT. J1924–2914 is a very compact flat-spectrum radio source with strong optical variability and polarization. In April 2017 the source was observed quasi-simultaneously with the EHT (April 5–11), the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (April 3), and the Very Long Baseline Array (April 28), giving a novel view of the source at four observing frequencies, 230, 86, 8.7, and 2.3 GHz. These observations probe jet properties from the subparsec to 100 pc scales. We combine the multifrequency images of J1924–2914 to study the source morphology. We find that the jet exhibits a characteristic bending, with a gradual clockwise rotation of the jet projected position angle of about 90° between 2.3 and 230 GHz. Linearly polarized intensity images of J1924–2914 with the extremely fine resolution of the EHT provide evidence for ordered toroidal magnetic fields in the blazar compact core.


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https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac7a40DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Mościbrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Liu, Jun0000-0002-7615-7499
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Lisakov, Mikhail0000-0001-6088-3819
Fuentes, Antonio0000-0002-8773-4933
Zhao, Guang-Yao0000-0002-4417-1659
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Algaba, Juan Carlos0000-0001-6993-1696
Anantua, Richard0000-0003-3457-7660
Asada, Keiichi0000-0001-6988-8763
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Bach, Uwe0000-0002-7722-8412
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Bauböck, Michi0000-0002-5518-2812
Benson, Bradford A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Blundell, Raymond0000-0002-5929-5857
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Boyce, Hope0000-0002-6530-5783
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Broguiere, Dominique0000-0001-9151-6683
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Bustamante, Sandra0000-0001-6169-1894
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Carlstrom, John E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Ceccobello, Chiara0000-0002-4767-9925
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chen, Ming-Tang0000-0001-6573-3318
Chen, Yongjun0000-0001-5650-6770
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Conroy, Nicholas S.0000-0003-2886-2377
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crawford, Thomas M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro0000-0002-3945-6342
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Dhruv, Vedant0000-0001-6765-877X
Dzib Quijano, Sergio Abraham0000-0001-6010-6200
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Emami, Razieh0000-0002-2791-5011
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Farah, Joseph0000-0003-4914-5625
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Ford, H. Alyson0000-0002-9797-0972
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Freeman, William T.0000-0002-2231-7995
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fromm, Christian M.0000-0002-1827-1656
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Gentaz, Olivier0000-0002-0115-4605
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.0000-0001-9395-1670
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Haggard, Daryl0000-0001-6803-2138
Hecht, Michael H.0000-0002-4114-4583
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Ho, Paul0000-0002-3412-4306
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Ikeda, Shiro0000-0002-2462-1448
Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette0000-0002-3443-2472
Inoue, Makoto0000-0001-5037-3989
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jannuzi, Buell T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Joshi, Abhishek V.0000-0002-2514-5965
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Dong-Jin0000-0002-7038-2118
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Kocherlakota, Prashant0000-0001-7386-7439
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Bella, Noemi La0000-0002-8116-9427
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Daeyoung0000-0002-3350-5588
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Leung, Po Kin0000-0002-8802-8256
Levis, Aviad0000-0001-7307-632X
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Lindahl, Greg0000-0002-6100-4772
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Lo, Wen-Ping0000-0003-1869-2503
Lobanov, Andrei P.0000-0003-1622-1484
Lonsdale, Colin0000-0003-4062-4654
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Marchili, Nicola0000-0002-5523-7588
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Matsushita, Satoki0000-0002-2127-7880
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Michalik, Daniel0000-0002-7618-6556
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Mus, Alejandro0000-0003-0329-6874
Musoke, Gibwa0000-0003-1984-189X
Myserlis, Ioannis0000-0003-3025-9497
Nadolski, Andrew0000-0001-9479-9957
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Narayanan, Gopal0000-0002-4723-6569
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neilsen, Joey0000-0002-8247-786X
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Nowak, Michael A.0000-0001-6923-1315
Oh, Junghwan0000-0002-4991-9638
Okino, Hiroki0000-0003-3779-2016
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Özel, Feryal0000-0003-4413-1523
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Paraschos, Georgios Filippos0000-0001-6757-3098
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Parsons, Harriet0000-0002-6327-3423
Patel, Nimesh0000-0002-6021-9421
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Pötzl, Felix M.0000-0002-6579-8311
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Psaltis, Dimitrios0000-0003-1035-3240
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ricarte, Angelo0000-0001-5287-0452
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rogers, Alan0000-0003-1941-7458
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Romero-Canizales, Cristina0000-0001-6301-9073
Roshanineshat, Arash0000-0002-8280-9238
Rottmann, Helge0000-0003-1799-8228
Roy, Alan L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Ruiz, Ignacio0000-0002-0965-5463
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
Sánchez, Salvador0000-0002-8042-5951
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sanchez-Portal, Miguel0000-0003-0981-9664
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Satapathy, Kaushik0000-0003-0433-3585
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Souccar, Kamal0000-0001-7915-5272
Sun, He0000-0003-1526-6787
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Tetarenko, Alexandra J.0000-0003-3906-4354
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Tilanus, Remo P. J.0000-0002-6514-553X
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Vos, Jesse0000-0003-3349-7394
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wiik, Kaj0000-0002-0862-3398
Witzel, Gunther0000-0003-2618-797X
Wondrak, Michael0000-0002-6894-1072
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yamaguchi, Paul0000-0002-6017-8199
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zensus, J. Anton0000-0001-7470-3321
Zhang, Shuo0000-0002-2967-790X
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 March 8; revised 2022 June 17; accepted 2022 June 17; published 2022 August 2. We thank the anonymous reviewer for their thoughtful and helpful comments. The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration thanks the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs) and Fondecyt 3190878, the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship; Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Centre node in the Netherlands, the NL astronomy research network NOVA and the astronomy institutes of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Radboud University; the black hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects U0004-246083, U0004-259839, F0003-272050, M0037-279006, F0003-281692, 104497, 275201, 263356); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM, projects IN112417 and IN112820); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); MICINN Research Project PID2019-108995GB-C22; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant GBMF-3561); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; Joint Princeton/Flatiron and Joint Columbia/Flatiron Postdoctoral Fellowships, research at the Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJSSW- SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6; the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119- M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005, 108-2112-M-001-048, and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567, NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant 80NSSC20K0527, NASA NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1555365,AST-1615796, AST-1715061, AST-1716327, AST-1903847,AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007, 11991052, 11991053); a fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M671266); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015- R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561, Basic Research Support Grant 2019R1F1A1059721); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P, PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (grant P18-FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (grant 2019AEP112); the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra DD7-18089X and TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario.ca), Calcul Quebec (http://www.calculquebec.ca) and Compute Canada (http://www.computecanada.ca). We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V and ADS/JAO.ALMA2016.1.00413.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA). The IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck- Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. Support for SPT participation in the EHT is provided by the National Science Foundation through award OPP-1852617 to the University of Chicago. Partial support is also provided by the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. We also thank Alexandra Elbakyan for her contributions to the open science initiative. This research has made use of data obtained with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA), coordinated by the VLBI group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR). The GMVA consists of telescopes operated by MPIfR, IRAM, Onsala, Metsahovi, Yebes, the Korean VLBI Network, the Green Bank Observatory, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The VLBA and the GBT are facilities of the National Science Foundation under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The data were correlated at the DiFX correlator of the MPIfR in Bonn, Germany. We thank the National Science Foundation (awards OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST-1716536, AST-1440254, AST-1935980) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF-5278) for financial support of this work. Support for this work was also provided by the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Academy of Finland315721
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
AllegroUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor de Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-246083
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-259839
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-272050
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)M0037-279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-281692
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)263356
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM)IN112417
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM)IN112820
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-108995GB-C22
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)TEONGRAV
International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Columbia UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJSSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leventis FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Malaysian Fundamental Research GrantFRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119- M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-001-048
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2124-M-001-005
NASA80NSSC20K1567
NASA80NSSC20K0527
NASA80NSSC20K0645
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanUNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSFAST-0096454
NSFAST-0352953
NSFAST-0521233
NSFAST-0705062
NSFAST-0905844
NSFAST-0922984
NSFAST-1126433
NSFAST-1140030
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
NSFAST-1207704
NSFAST-1207730
NSFAST-1207752
NSFAST-1228509
NSFOPP-1248097
NSFAST-1310896
NSFAST-1555365
NSFAST-1615796
NSFAST-1715061
NSFAST-1716327
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903847
NSFAST-2034306
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991052
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991053
China Postdoctoral Science Foundation2020M671266
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
National Research Foundation of Korea2019R1F1A1059721
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)SPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2019-108995GB-C21
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaP18-FR-1769
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas2019AEP112
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
European Research Council (ERC)730562
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
NASADD7-18089X
NASATM6-17006X
NSFACI-1548562
CyVerseUNSPECIFIED
NSFDBI-0735191
NSFDBI-1265383
NSFDBI-1743442
NSFTG-AST170024
NSFTG-AST080026N
NSFAST-170028
Compute CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Calcul QuebecUNSPECIFIED
Compute CanadaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Council of CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA)UNSPECIFIED
Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI)UNSPECIFIED
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
Associated Universities, Inc.UNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Finance (China)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y ElectrónicaUNSPECIFIED
University of Massachusetts AmherstUNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
University of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
NSFOPP-1852617
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Xilinx Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER)UNSPECIFIED
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
NSFAST-1716536
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1935980
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
Subject Keywords:Active galactic nuclei; Active galaxies; Blazars; Jets; High energy astrophysics; Very long baseline interferometry; Radio interferometry
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Active galactic nuclei (16); Active galaxies (17); Blazars (164); Jets (870); High energy astrophysics (739); Very long baseline interferometry (1769); Radio interferometry (1346)
DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7a40
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220803-224807000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220803-224807000
Official Citation:Sara Issaoun et al 2022 ApJ 934 145
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116068
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:03 Aug 2022 20:34
Last Modified:03 Aug 2022 20:34

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