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Heterogeneous iodine-organic chemistry fast-tracks marine new particle formation

Huang, Ru-Jin and Hoffmann, Thorsten and Ovadnevaite, Jurgita and Laaksonen, Ari and Kokkola, Harri and Xu, Wen and Xu, Wei and Ceburnis, Darius and Zhang, Renyi and Seinfeld, John H. and O'Dowd, Colin (2022) Heterogeneous iodine-organic chemistry fast-tracks marine new particle formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119 (32). Art. No. e2201729119. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC9371740. doi:10.1073/pnas.2201729119.

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The gas-phase formation of new particles less than 1 nm in size and their subsequent growth significantly alters the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, >30–50 nm), leading to impacts on cloud reflectance and the global radiative budget. However, this growth cannot be accounted for by condensation of typical species driving the initial nucleation. Here, we present evidence that nucleated iodine oxide clusters provide unique sites for the accelerated growth of organic vapors to overcome the coagulation sink. Heterogeneous reactions form low-volatility organic acids and alkylaminium salts in the particle phase, while further oligomerization of small α-dicarbonyls (e.g., glyoxal) drives the particle growth. This identified heterogeneous mechanism explains the occurrence of particle production events at organic vapor concentrations almost an order of magnitude lower than those required for growth via condensation alone. A notable fraction of iodine associated with these growing particles is recycled back into the gas phase, suggesting an effective transport mechanism for iodine to remote regions, acting as a “catalyst” for nucleation and subsequent new particle production in marine air.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information CentralArticle
Huang, Ru-Jin0000-0002-4907-9616
Hoffmann, Thorsten0000-0003-0939-271X
Ovadnevaite, Jurgita0000-0001-7201-0118
Kokkola, Harri0000-0002-1404-6670
Xu, Wen0000-0002-2084-2630
Xu, Wei0000-0002-9590-1906
Ceburnis, Darius0000-0003-0231-5324
Zhang, Renyi0000-0001-8708-3862
Seinfeld, John H.0000-0003-1344-4068
O'Dowd, Colin0000-0002-3068-2212
Additional Information:© 2022 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND). Edited by Akkihebbal Ravishankara, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO; received January 30, 2022; accepted June 14, 2022. Received: January 30, 2022. Accepted: June 14, 2022. Published online: August 2, 2022. Published in issue: August 9, 2022. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model used in this publication. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41925015), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ZDBS-LY-DQC001), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB40000000), SKLLQG (SKLLQGTD1801), the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement 603445, the Irish Environmental Protection Agency, the HEA PRTLI4 project, and MaREI, the SFI (Science Foundation Ireland) Research Centre for Energy, Climate and Marine. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Data Availability. All study data are included in the article and/or SI Appendix. Data related to this article are also available at the East Asian Paleoenvironmental Science Database, National Earth System Science Data Center, National Science & Technology Infrastructure of China ( (48). Author contributions: R.-J.H., T.H., and C.O. designed research; R.-J.H., J.O., Wen Xu, and D.C. performed research; R.Z. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; R.-J.H., J.O., A.L., H.K., Wei Xu, and D.C. analyzed data; and R.-J.H., T.H., J.H.S., and C.O. wrote the paper. The authors declare no competing interest.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China41925015
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-DQC001
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB40000000
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG)SKLLQGTD1801
European Research Council (ERC)603445
Irish Environmental Protection AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Authority (Ireland)UNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:marine new particle formation; heterogeneous reaction; iodine; intermediate oxidized organics
Issue or Number:32
PubMed Central ID:PMC9371740
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220803-536053000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Huang RJ, Hoffmann T, Ovadnevaite J, et al. Heterogeneous iodine-organic chemistry fast-tracks marine new particle formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022;119(32):e2201729119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2201729119
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116077
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 Aug 2022 17:52
Last Modified:17 Aug 2022 16:04

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