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Juno Spacecraft Measurements of Jupiter’s Gravity Imply a Dilute Core

Militzer, Burkhard and Hubbard, William B. and Wahl, Sean and Lunine, Jonathan I. and Galanti, Eli and Kaspi, Yohai and Miguel, Yamila and Guillot, Tristan and Moore, Kimberly M. and Parisi, Marzia and Connerney, John E. P. and Helled, Ravid and Cao, Hao and Mankovich, Christopher and Stevenson, David J. and Park, Ryan S. and Wong, Mike and Atreya, Sushil K. and Anderson, John and Bolton, Scott J. (2022) Juno Spacecraft Measurements of Jupiter’s Gravity Imply a Dilute Core. Planetary Science Journal, 3 (8). Art. No. 185. ISSN 2632-3338. doi:10.3847/psj/ac7ec8.

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The Juno spacecraft measured Jupiter's gravity field and determined the even and odd zonal harmonics, Jₙ, with unprecedented precision. However, interpreting these observations has been a challenge because it is difficult to reconcile the unexpectedly small magnitudes of the moments J₄ and J₆ with conventional interior models that assume a large, distinct core of rock and ice. Here we show that the entire set of gravity harmonics can be matched with models that assume an ab initio equation of state, wind profiles, and a dilute core of heavy elements that are distributed as far out as 63% of the planet's radius. In the core region, heavy elements are predicted to be distributed uniformly and make up only 18% by mass because of dilution with hydrogen and helium. Our models are consistent with the existence of primary and secondary dynamo layers that will help explain the complexity of the observed magnetic field.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Militzer, Burkhard0000-0002-7092-5629
Hubbard, William B.0000-0003-3185-4538
Wahl, Sean0000-0003-2451-7939
Lunine, Jonathan I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Galanti, Eli0000-0002-5440-8779
Kaspi, Yohai0000-0003-4089-0020
Miguel, Yamila0000-0002-0747-8862
Guillot, Tristan0000-0002-7188-8428
Moore, Kimberly M.0000-0003-3162-437X
Parisi, Marzia0000-0003-4064-6634
Connerney, John E. P.0000-0001-7478-6462
Helled, Ravid0000-0001-5555-2652
Cao, Hao0000-0002-6917-8363
Mankovich, Christopher0000-0002-4940-9929
Stevenson, David J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Park, Ryan S.0000-0001-9896-4585
Atreya, Sushil K.0000-0002-1972-1815
Bolton, Scott J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 May 31; revised 2022 July 1; accepted 2022 July 1; published 2022 August 4.
Subject Keywords:Solar system gas giant planets
Issue or Number:8
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Solar system gas giant planets (1191)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220804-981005000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Burkhard Militzer et al 2022 Planet. Sci. J. 3 185
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116098
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Aug 2022 14:59
Last Modified:09 Aug 2022 14:59

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