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Lithium depletion boundary, stellar associations, and Gaia

Galindo-Guil, F. J. and Barrado, D. and Bouy, H. and Olivares, J. and Bayo, A. and Morales-Calderón, M. and Huélamo, N. and Sarro, L. M. and Rivière-Marichalar, P. and Stoev, H. and Montesinos, B. and Stauffer, J. R. (2022) Lithium depletion boundary, stellar associations, and Gaia. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 664 . Art. No. A70. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141114.

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Context. Stellar ages are key to improving our understanding of different astrophysical phenomena. However, many techniques to estimate stellar ages are highly model-dependent. The lithium depletion boundary (LDB), based on the presence or absence of lithium in low-mass stars, can be used to derive ages in stellar associations of between 20 and 500 Ma. Aims. The purpose of this work is to revise former LDB ages in stellar associations in a consistent way, taking advantage of the homogeneous Gaia parallaxes as well as bolometric luminosity estimations that do not rely on monochromatic bolometric corrections. Methods. We studied nine open clusters and three moving groups characterised by a previous determination of the LDB age. We gathered all the available information from our data and the literature: membership, distances, photometric data, reddening, metallicity, and surface gravity. We re-assigned membership and calculated bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures using distances derived from Gaia DR2 and multi-wavelength photometry for individual objects around the former LDB. We located the LDB using a homogeneous method for all the stellar associations. Finally, we estimated the age by comparing it with different evolutionary models. Results. We located the LDB for the twelve stellar associations and derived their ages using several theoretical evolutionary models. We compared the LDB ages among them, along with data obtained with other techniques, such as isochrone fitting, ultimately finding some discrepancies among the various approaches. Finally, we remark that the 32 Ori MG is likely to be composed of at least two populations of different ages.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Galindo-Guil, F. J.0000-0003-4776-9098
Barrado, D.0000-0002-5971-9242
Bouy, H.0000-0002-7084-487X
Bayo, A.0000-0001-7868-7031
Morales-Calderón, M.0000-0001-9526-9499
Huélamo, N.0000-0002-2711-8143
Sarro, L. M.0000-0002-5622-5191
Rivière-Marichalar, P.0000-0003-0969-8137
Montesinos, B.0000-0002-7982-2095
Stauffer, J. R.0000-0003-3595-7382
Additional Information:© F. J. Galindo-Guil et al. 2022. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received: 18 April 2021 Accepted: 12 April 2022. A special thanks to Alcione Mora for his help with the Gaia data, Floor van Leeuwen for his help with the size of the clusters, Ana María Álvarez García, María Teresa Galindo Guil and Irene Pintos-Castro for their comments and suggestions, Agnes Monod-Gayraud for her careful reading of the manuscript and English corrections, and the anonymous referee for the comments that helped to improve the quality of this manuscript. FJGG acknowledges support from Johannes Andersen Student Programme at the Nordic Optical Telescope. This research has been funded by the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) Project No.PID2019-107061GB-C61 and No. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” – Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC); AB acknowledges support by ANID, – Millennium Science Initiative Program – NCN19_171 and BASAL project FB210003, and from FONDECYT Regular 1190748; VOSA, developed under the Spanish Virtual Observatory project supported from the Spanish MINECO through grant AyA2017-84089; the astronomical java software TOPCAT (Taylor 2005) and STILTS (Taylor 2006); NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services; ESASky, developed by the ESAC Science Data Centre (ESDC) team and maintained alongside other ESA science mission’s archives at ESA’s European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC, Madrid, Spain); the SVO Filter Profile Service ( supported from the Spanish MINECO through grant AyA2014-55216; data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement; The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France; Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, the Korean Participation Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University; data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nordic Optical TelescopeUNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónPID2019-107061GB-C61
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónMDM-2017-0737
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_171
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1190748
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AyA2017-84089
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AyA2014-55216
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:open clusters and associations: general / brown dwarfs / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: low-mass
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220805-204715000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Lithium depletion boundary, stellar associations, and Gaia F. J. Galindo-Guil, D. Barrado, H. Bouy, J. Olivares, A. Bayo, M. Morales-Calderón, N. Huélamo, L. M. Sarro, P. Rivière-Marichalar, H. Stoev, B. Montesinos and J. R. Stauffer A&A, 664 (2022) A70 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116151
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Aug 2022 15:32
Last Modified:09 Aug 2022 15:32

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