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COSMOS2020: Cosmic evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass relation for central and satellite galaxies up to z ∼ 5

Shuntov, M. and McCracken, H. J. and Gavazzi, R. and Laigle, C. and Weaver, J. R. and Davidzon, I. and Ilbert, O. and Kauffmann, O. B. and Faisst, A. and Dubois, Y. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Moneti, A. and Milvang-Jensen, B. and Mobasher, B. and Sanders, D. B. and Toft, S. (2022) COSMOS2020: Cosmic evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass relation for central and satellite galaxies up to z ∼ 5. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 664 . Art. No. A61. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243136.

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We used the COSMOS2020 catalog to measure the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) divided by central and satellite galaxies from z = 0.2 to z = 5.5. Starting from accurate photometric redshifts, we measured the near-infrared selected two-point angular correlation and stellar mass functions in ten redshift bins. We used a phenomenological model that parametrizes the stellar-to-halo mass relation for central galaxies and the number of galaxies inside each halo to describe our observations. This model qualitatively reproduces our measurements and their dependence on the stellar mass threshold. Surprisingly, the mean halo occupation distribution only shows a mild evolution with redshift suggesting that galaxies occupy halos similarly throughout cosmic time. At each redshift, we measured the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass, M_*/Mₕ, which shows the characteristic strong dependence of halo mass with a peak at Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ ∼ 2 × 10¹² M_⊙. For the first time, using a joint modeling of clustering and abundances, we measured the evolution of Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ from z = 0.2 to z = 5.5. Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ increases gradually with redshift from log Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ/M_⊙ ∼ 12.1 at z ∼ 0.3 to log Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ/M_ ∼ 12.3 at z ∼ 2, and up to log Mₕᵖᵉᵃᵏ/M_⊙ ∼ 12.9 at z ∼ 5. Similarly, the stellar mass peak M∗peak increases with redshift from log M∗ᵖᵉᵃᵏ/M_⊙ ∼ 10.5 at z ∼ 0.3 to log M∗ᵖᵉᵃᵏ/M_⊙ ∼ 10.9 at z ∼ 3. The SHMR ratio at the peak halo mass remains almost constant with redshift. These results are in accordance with the scenario in which the peak of star-formation efficiency moves toward more massive halos at higher redshifts. We also measured the fraction of satellites as a function of stellar mass and redshift. For all stellar mass thresholds, the satellite fraction decreases at higher redshifts. At a given redshift, there is a higher fraction of low-mass satellites and this fraction reaches a plateau at ∼25% at z ∼ 1. The satellite contribution to the total stellar mass budget in halos becomes more important than that of the central at halo masses of about Mₕ >  10¹³ M_⊙ and always stays below the peak, indicating that quenching mechanisms are present in massive halos that keep the star-formation efficiency low. Finally, we compared our results with three hydrodynamical simulations: HORIZON-AGN, TNG100 of the ILLUSTRISTNG project, and EAGLE. We find that the most significant discrepancy is at the high-mass end, where the simulations generally show that satellites have a higher contribution to the total stellar mass budget than the observations. This, together with the finding that the fraction of satellites is higher in the simulations, indicates that the feedback mechanisms acting in both group- and cluster-scale halos appear to be less efficient in quenching the mass assembly of satellites – and that quenching occurs much later in the simulations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Shuntov, M.0000-0002-7087-0701
McCracken, H. J.0000-0002-9489-7765
Gavazzi, R.0000-0002-5540-6935
Weaver, J. R.0000-0003-1614-196X
Davidzon, I.0000-0002-2951-7519
Ilbert, O.0000-0002-7303-4397
Kauffmann, O. B.0000-0001-5283-4662
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Dubois, Y.0000-0003-0225-6387
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Milvang-Jensen, B.0000-0002-2281-2785
Sanders, D. B.0000-0002-1233-9998
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Alternate Title:COSMOS2020: The cosmic evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass relation for central and satellite galaxies up to z~5
Additional Information:© M. Shuntov et al. 2022. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received: 17 January 2022 Accepted: 8 April 2022. This research is partly supported by the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES). MS acknowledges Elena Sarpa, Lukas Furtak and Louis Legrand for useful discussions. Part of this study benefitted from earlier, unpublished work by J. Coupon. MS acknowledges the partial thesis funding by Euclid-CNES. HJMcC and CL acknowledge support from the Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG) of CNRS/INSU with INP and IN2P3, co-funded by CEA and CNES. ID has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska- Curie grant agreement No. 896225. This work used the CANDIDE computer system at the IAP supported by grants from the PNCG, DIM-ACAV and CNES and maintained by S. Rouberol. This work is based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO program ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by CALET and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. This work is based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship896225
NASANAS 5-26555
Subject Keywords:galaxies: halos / galaxies: evolution / large-scale structure of Universe
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220805-205096000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:COSMOS2020: Cosmic evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass relation for central and satellite galaxies up to z ∼ 5 M. Shuntov, H. J. McCracken, R. Gavazzi, C. Laigle, J. R. Weaver, I. Davidzon, O. Ilbert, O. B. Kauffmann, A. Faisst, Y. Dubois, A. M. Koekemoer, A. Moneti, B. Milvang-Jensen, B. Mobasher, D. B. Sanders and S. Toft A&A, 664 (2022) A61 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116154
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Aug 2022 17:36
Last Modified:09 Aug 2022 17:36

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