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All-sky, all-frequency directional search for persistent gravitational waves from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s first three observing runs

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, N. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agarwal, D. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Akutsu, T. and Albanesi, S. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, C. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Ando, M. and Andrade, T. and Andres, N. and Andrić, T. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, Koji and Arai, Koya and Arai, Y. and Araki, S. and Araya, A. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Aritomi, N. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Arun, K. G. and Asada, H. and Asali, Y. and Ashton, G. and Aso, Y. and Assiduo, M. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Austin, C. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Badger, C. and Bae, S. and Bae, Y. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Bai, Y. and Baiotti, L. and Baird, J. and Bajpai, R. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Baylor, A. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Benedetto, V. and Beniwal, D. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and BenYaala, M. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bernuzzi, S. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Beveridge, D. and Bhandare, R. and Bhardwaj, U. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bhaumik, S. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Bini, S. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Biswas, B. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M.-A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bonavena, L. D. and Bondu, F. and Bonilla, E. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, N. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branch, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Bryant, J. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buscicchio, R. and Buskulic, D. and Buy, C. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Cahillane, C. and Calderón Bustillo, J. and Callaghan, J. D. and Callister, T. A. and Calloni, E. and Cameron, J. and Camp, J. B. and Canepa, M. and Canevarolo, S. and Cannavacciuolo, M. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, H. and Cao, Z. and Capocasa, E. and Capote, E. and Carapella, G. and Carbognani, F. and Carlin, J. B. and Carney, M. F. and Carpinelli, M. and Carrillo, G. and Carullo, G. and Carver, T. L. and Casanueva Diaz, J. and Casentini, C. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Ceasar, M. and Cella, G. and Cerdá-Durán, P. and Cesarini, E. and Chaibi, W. and Chakravarti, K. and Chalathadka Subrahmanya, S. and Champion, E. and Chan, C.-H. and Chan, C. and Chan, C. L. and Chan, K. and Chan, M. and Chandra, K. and Chanial, P. and Chao, S. and Charlton, P. and Chase, E. A. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chatterjee, C. and Chatterjee, Debarati and Chatterjee, Deep and Chaturvedi, M. and Chaty, S. and Chen, C. and Chen, H. Y. and Chen, J. and Chen, K. and Chen, X. and Chen, Y. and Chen, Y.-R. and Chen, Z. and Cheng, H. and Cheong, C. K. and Cheung, H. Y. and Chia, H. Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chiang, C.-Y. and Chiarini, G. and Chierici, R. and Chincarini, A. and Chiofalo, M. L. and Chiummo, A. and Cho, G. and Cho, H. S. and Choudhary, R. K. and Choudhary, S. and Christensen, N. and Chu, H. and Chu, Q. and Chu, Y.-K. and Chua, S. and Chung, K. W. and Ciani, G. and Ciecielag, P. and Cieślar, M. and Cifaldi, M. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Ciolfi, R. and Cipriano, F. and Cirone, A. and Clara, F. and Clark, E. N. and Clark, J. A. and Clarke, L. and Clearwater, P. and Clesse, S. and Cleva, F. and Coccia, E. and Codazzo, E. and Cohadon, P.-F. and Cohen, D. E. and Cohen, L. and Colleoni, M. and Collette, C. G. and Colombo, A. and Colpi, M. and Compton, C. M. and Constancio, M. and Conti, L. and Cooper, S. J. and Corban, P. and Corbitt, T. R. and Cordero-Carrión, I. and Corezzi, S. and Corley, K. R. and Cornish, N. and Corre, D. and Corsi, A. and Cortese, S. and Costa, C. A. and Cotesta, R. and Coughlin, M. W. and Coulon, J.-P. and Countryman, S. T. and Cousins, B. and Couvares, P. and Coward, D. M. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Coyne, R. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Criswell, A. W. and Croquette, M. and Crowder, S. G. and Cudell, J. R. and Cullen, T. J. and Cumming, A. and Cummings, R. and Cunningham, L. and Cuoco, E. and Curyło, M. and Dabadie, P. and Dal Canton, T. and Dall’Osso, S. and Dálya, G. and Dana, A. and DaneshgaranBajastani, L. M. and D’Angelo, B. and Danilishin, S. and D’Antonio, S. and Danzmann, K. and Darsow-Fromm, C. and Dasgupta, A. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Datta, S. and Dattilo, V. and Dave, I. and Davier, M. and Davies, G. S. and Davis, D. and Davis, M. C. and Daw, E. J. and Dean, R. and DeBra, D. and Deenadayalan, M. and Degallaix, J. and De Laurentis, M. and Deléglise, S. and Del Favero, V. and De Lillo, F. and De Lillo, N. and Del Pozzo, W. and DeMarchi, L. M. and De Matteis, F. and D’Emilio, V. and Demos, N. and Dent, T. and Depasse, A. and De Pietri, R. and De Rosa, R. and De Rossi, C. and DeSalvo, R. and De Simone, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. C. and Diaz-Ortiz, M. and Didio, N. A. and Dietrich, T. and Di Fiore, L. and Di Fronzo, C. and Di Giorgio, C. and Di Giovanni, F. and Di Giovanni, M. and Di Girolamo, T. and Di Lieto, A. and Ding, B. and Di Pace, S. and Di Palma, I. and Di Renzo, F. and Divakarla, A. K. and Dmitriev, A. and Doctor, Z. and D’Onofrio, L. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Dorrington, I. and Drago, M. and Driggers, J. C. and Drori, Y. and Ducoin, J.-G. and Dupej, P. and Durante, O. and D’Urso, D. and Duverne, P.-A. and Dwyer, S. E. and Eassa, C. and Easter, P. J. and Ebersold, M. and Eckhardt, T. and Eddolls, G. and Edelman, B. and Edo, T. B. and Edy, O. and Effler, A. and Eguchi, S. and Eichholz, J. and Eikenberry, S. S. and Eisenmann, M. and Eisenstein, R. A. and Ejlli, A. and Engelby, E. and Enomoto, Y. and Errico, L. and Essick, R. C. and Estellés, H. and Estevez, D. and Etienne, Z. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Ewing, B. E. and Fafone, V. and Fair, H. and Fairhurst, S. and Farah, A. M. and Farinon, S. and Farr, B. and Farr, W. M. and Farrow, N. W. and Fauchon-Jones, E. J. and Favaro, G. and Favata, M. and Fays, M. and Fazio, M. and Feicht, J. and Fejer, M. M. and Fenyvesi, E. and Ferguson, D. L. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Ferrante, I. and Ferreira, T. A. and Fidecaro, F. and Figura, P. and Fiori, I. and Fishbach, M. and Fisher, R. P. and Fittipaldi, R. and Fiumara, V. and Flaminio, R. and Floden, E. and Fong, H. and Font, J. A. and Fornal, B. and Forsyth, P. W. F. and Franke, A. and Frasca, S. and Frasconi, F. and Frederick, C. and Freed, J. P. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fronzé, G. G. and Fujii, Y. and Fujikawa, Y. and Fukunaga, M. and Fukushima, M. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Gabbard, H. A. and Gadre, B. U. and Gair, J. R. and Gais, J. and Galaudage, S. and Gamba, R. and Ganapathy, D. and Ganguly, A. and Gao, D. and Gaonkar, S. G. and Garaventa, B. and García-Núñez, C. and García-Quirós, C. and Garufi, F. and Gateley, B. and Gaudio, S. and Gayathri, V. and Ge, G.-G. and Gemme, G. and Gennai, A. and George, J. and Gerberding, O. and Gergely, L. and Gewecke, P. and Ghonge, S. and Ghosh, Abhirup and Ghosh, Archisman and Ghosh, Shaon and Ghosh, Shrobana and Giacomazzo, B. and Giacoppo, L. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gibson, D. R. and Gier, C. and Giesler, M. and Giri, P. and Gissi, F. and Glanzer, J. and Gleckl, A. E. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Goetz, R. and Gohlke, N. and Goncharov, B. and González, G. and Gopakumar, A. and Gosselin, M. and Gouaty, R. and Gould, D. W. and Grace, B. and Grado, A. and Granata, M. and Granata, V. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Grassia, P. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Greco, G. and Green, A. C. and Green, R. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Gretarsson, E. M. and Griffith, D. and Griffiths, W. and Griggs, H. L. and Grignani, G. and Grimaldi, A. and Grimm, S. J. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Gruning, P. and Guerra, D. and Guidi, G. M. and Guimaraes, A. R. and Guixé, G. and Gulati, H. K. and Guo, H.-K. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, Anchal and Gupta, Anuradha and Gupta, P. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Guzman, F. and Ha, S. and Haegel, L. and Hagiwara, A. and Haino, S. and Halim, O. and Hall, E. D. and Hamilton, E. Z. and Hammond, G. and Han, W.-B. and Haney, M. and Hanks, J. and Hanna, C. and Hannam, M. D. and Hannuksela, O. and Hansen, H. and Hansen, T. J. and Hanson, J. and Harder, T. and Hardwick, T. and Haris, K. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Hartwig, D. and Hasegawa, K. and Haskell, B. and Hasskew, R. K. and Haster, C.-J. and Hattori, K. and Haughian, K. and Hayakawa, H. and Hayama, K. and Hayes, F. J. and Healy, J. and Heidmann, A. and Heidt, A. and Heintze, M. C. and Heinze, J. and Heinzel, J. and Heitmann, H. and Hellman, F. and Hello, P. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Hemming, G. and Hendry, M. and Heng, I. S. and Hennes, E. and Hennig, J. and Hennig, M. H. and Hernandez, A. G. and Hernandez Vivanco, F. and Heurs, M. and Hild, S. and Hill, P. and Himemoto, Y. and Hines, A. S. and Hiranuma, Y. and Hirata, N. and Hirose, E. and Hochheim, S. and Hofman, D. and Hohmann, J. N. and Holcomb, D. G. and Holland, N. A. and Hollows, I. J. and Holmes, Z. J. and Holt, K. and Holz, D. E. and Hong, Z. and Hopkins, P. and Hough, J. and Hourihane, S. and Howell, E. J. and Hoy, C. G. and Hoyland, D. and Hreibi, A. and Hsieh, B.-H. and Hsu, Y. and Huang, G.-Z. and Huang, H-Y. and Huang, P. and Huang, Y.-C. and Huang, Y.-J. and Huang, Y. and Hübner, M. T. and Huddart, A. D. and Hughey, B. and Hui, D. C. Y. and Hui, V. and Husa, S. and Huttner, S. H. and Huxford, R. and Huynh-Dinh, T. and Ide, S. and Idzkowski, B. and Iess, A. and Ikenoue, B. and Imam, S. and Inayoshi, K. and Ingram, C. and Inoue, Y. and Ioka, K. and Isi, M. and Isleif, K. and Ito, K. and Itoh, Y. and Iyer, B. R. and Izumi, K. and JaberianHamedan, V. and Jacqmin, T. and Jadhav, S. J. and Jadhav, S. P. and James, A. L. and Jan, A. Z. and Jani, K. and Janquart, J. and Janssens, K. and Janthalur, N. N. and Jaranowski, P. and Jariwala, D. and Jaume, R. and Jenkins, A. C. and Jenner, K. and Jeon, C. and Jeunon, M. and Jia, W. and Jin, H.-B. and Johns, G. R. and Jones, A. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, J. D. and Jones, P. and Jones, R. and Jonker, R. J. G. and Ju, L. and Jung, P. and Jung, k. and Junker, J. and Juste, V. and Kaihotsu, K. and Kajita, T. and Kakizaki, M. and Kalaghatgi, C. V. and Kalogera, V. and Kamai, B. and Kamiizumi, M. and Kanda, N. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kang, G. and Kanner, J. B. and Kao, Y. and Kapadia, S. J. and Kapasi, D. P. and Karat, S. and Karathanasis, C. and Karki, S. and Kashyap, R. and Kasprzack, M. and Kastaun, W. and Katsanevas, S. and Katsavounidis, E. and Katzman, W. and Kaur, T. and Kawabe, K. and Kawaguchi, K. and Kawai, N. and Kawasaki, T. and Kéfélian, F. and Keitel, D. and Key, J. S. and Khadka, S. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, S. and Khazanov, E. A. and Khetan, N. and Khursheed, M. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Kim, C. and Kim, J. C. and Kim, J. and Kim, K. and Kim, W. S. and Kim, Y.-M. and Kimball, C. and Kimura, N. and Kinley-Hanlon, M. and Kirchhoff, R. and Kissel, J. S. and Kita, N. and Kitazawa, H. and Kleybolte, L. and Klimenko, S. and Knee, A. M. and Knowles, T. D. and Knyazev, E. and Koch, P. and Koekoek, G. and Kojima, Y. and Kokeyama, K. and Koley, S. and Kolitsidou, P. and Kolstein, M. and Komori, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kong, A. K. H. and Kontos, A. and Koper, N. and Korobko, M. and Kotake, K. and Kovalam, M. and Kozak, D. B. and Kozakai, C. and Kozu, R. and Kringel, V. and Krishnendu, N. V. and Królak, A. and Kuehn, G. and Kuei, F. and Kuijer, P. and Kumar, A. and Kumar, P. and Kumar, Rahul and Kumar, Rakesh and Kume, J. and Kuns, K. and Kuo, C. and Kuo, H-S. and Kuromiya, Y. and Kuroyanagi, S. and Kusayanagi, K. and Kuwahara, S. and Kwak, K. and Lagabbe, P. and Laghi, D. and Lalande, E. and Lam, T. L. and Lamberts, A. and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lang, R. N. and Lange, J. and Lantz, B. and La Rosa, I. and Lartaux-Vollard, A. and Lasky, P. D. and Laxen, M. and Lazzarini, A. and Lazzaro, C. and Leaci, P. and Leavey, S. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Lee, H. K. and Lee, H. M. and Lee, H. W. and Lee, J. and Lee, K. and Lee, R. and Lehmann, J. and Lemaître, A. and Leonardi, M. and Leroy, N. and Letendre, N. and Levesque, C. and Levin, Y. and Leviton, J. N. and Leyde, K. and Li, A. K. Y. and Li, B. and Li, J. and Li, K. L. and Li, T. G. F. and Li, X. and Lin, C.-Y. and Lin, F-K. and Lin, F-L. and Lin, H. L. and Lin, L. C.-C. and Linde, F. and Linker, S. D. and Linley, J. N. and Littenberg, T. B. and Liu, G. C. and Liu, J. and Liu, K. and Liu, X. and Llamas, F. and Llorens-Monteagudo, M. and Lo, R. K. L. and Lockwood, A. and London, L. T. and Longo, A. and Lopez, D. and Lopez Portilla, M. and Lorenzini, M. and Loriette, V. and Lormand, M. and Losurdo, G. and Lott, T. P. and Lough, J. D. and Lousto, C. O. and Lovelace, G. and Lucaccioni, J. F. and Lück, H. and Lumaca, D. and Lundgren, A. P. and Luo, L.-W. and Lynam, J. E. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and MacMillan, I. A. O. and Macquet, A. and Magaña Hernandez, I. and Magazzù, C. and Magee, Ryan and Maggiore, R. and Magnozzi, M. and Mahesh, S. and Majorana, E. and Makarem, C. and Maksimovic, I. and Maliakal, S. and Malik, A. and Man, N. and Mandic, V. and Mangano, V. and Mango, J. L. and Mansell, G. L. and Manske, M. and Mantovani, M. and Mapelli, M. and Marchesoni, F. and Marchio, M. and Marion, F. and Mark, Z. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markakis, C. and Markosyan, A. S. and Markowitz, A. and Maros, E. and Marquina, A. and Marsat, S. and Martelli, F. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Martinez, M. and Martinez, V. A. and Martinez, V. and Martinovic, K. and Martynov, D. V. and Marx, E. J. and Masalehdan, H. and Mason, K. and Massera, E. and Masserot, A. and Massinger, T. J. and Masso-Reid, M. and Mastrogiovanni, S. and Matas, A. and Mateu-Lucena, M. and Matichard, F. and Matiushechkina, M. and Mavalvala, N. and McCann, J. J. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McClincy, P. K. and McCormick, S. and McCuller, L. and McGhee, G. I. and McGuire, S. C. and McIsaac, C. and McIver, J. and McRae, T. and McWilliams, S. T. and Meacher, D. and Mehmet, M. and Mehta, A. K. and Meijer, Q. and Melatos, A. and Melchor, D. A. and Mendell, G. and Menendez-Vazquez, A. and Menoni, C. S. and Mercer, R. A. and Mereni, L. and Merfeld, K. and Merilh, E. L. and Merritt, J. D. and Merzougui, M. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Messick, C. and Meyers, P. M. and Meylahn, F. and Mhaske, A. and Miani, A. and Miao, H. and Michaloliakos, I. and Michel, C. and Michimura, Y. and Middleton, H. and Milano, L. and Miller, A. L. and Miller, A. and Miller, B. and Millhouse, M. and Mills, J. C. and Milotti, E. and Minazzoli, O. and Minenkov, Y. and Mio, N. and Mir, Ll. M. and Miravet-Tenés, M. and Mishra, C. and Mishra, T. and Mistry, T. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Miyamoto, A. and Miyazaki, Y. and Miyo, K. and Miyoki, S. and Mo, Geoffrey and Moguel, E. and Mogushi, K. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Mohite, S. R. and Molina, I. and Molina-Ruiz, M. and Mondin, M. and Montani, M. and Moore, C. J. and Moraru, D. and Morawski, F. and More, A. and Moreno, C. and Moreno, G. and Mori, Y. and Morisaki, S. and Moriwaki, Y. and Mours, B. and Mow-Lowry, C. 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(2022) All-sky, all-frequency directional search for persistent gravitational waves from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s first three observing runs. Physical Review D, 105 (12). Art. No. 122001. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.105.122001. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220808-887240000

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Abstract

We present the first results from an all-sky all-frequency (ASAF) search for an anisotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from the first three observing runs of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. Upper limit maps on broadband anisotropies of a persistent stochastic background were published for all observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo detectors. However, a broadband analysis is likely to miss narrowband signals as the signal-to-noise ratio of a narrowband signal can be significantly reduced when combined with detector output from other frequencies. Data folding and the computationally efficient analysis pipeline, PyStoch, enable us to perform the radiometer map-making at every frequency bin. We perform the search at 3072 HEALPix equal area pixels uniformly tiling the sky and in every frequency bin of width 1 / 32     Hz in the range 20–1726 Hz, except for bins that are likely to contain instrumental artefacts and hence are notched. We do not find any statistically significant evidence for the existence of narrowband gravitational-wave signals in the analyzed frequency bins. Therefore, we place 95% confidence upper limits on the gravitational-wave strain for each pixel-frequency pair, the limits are in the range (0.030 − 9.6) × 10⁻²⁴. In addition, we outline a method to identify candidate pixel-frequency pairs that could be followed up by a more sensitive (and potentially computationally expensive) search, e.g., a matched-filtering-based analysis, to look for fainter nearly monochromatic coherent signals. The ASAF analysis is inherently independent of models describing any spectral or spatial distribution of power. We demonstrate that the ASAF results can be appropriately combined over frequencies and sky directions to successfully recover the broadband directional and isotropic results.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.105.122001DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.09834arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Anderson, S. B.0000-0003-2219-9383
Arai, Koji0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
Badaracco, F.0000-0001-8553-7904
Barish, B. C.0000-0001-6386-7371
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Biscoveanu, S.0000-0001-7616-7366
Bizouard, M.-A.0000-0002-4618-1674
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Buonanno, A.0000-0002-5433-1409
Buscicchio, R.0000-0002-7387-6754
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Calderón Bustillo, J.0000-0002-4171-5884
Canepa, M.0000-0002-5148-1233
Chalathadka Subrahmanya, S.0000-0002-9207-4669
Chassande-Mottin, E.0000-0003-3768-9908
Chatterjee, Deep0000-0003-0038-5468
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Chiang, C.-Y.0000-0002-9630-4003
Christensen, N.0000-0002-6870-4202
Cieślar, M.0000-0001-8912-5587
Ciobanu, A. A.0000-0002-4793-093X
Cohadon, P.-F.0000-0003-3452-9415
Cordero-Carrión, I.0000-0002-1985-1361
Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Couvares, P.0000-0002-2823-3127
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Creighton, J. D. E.0000-0003-3600-2406
Dal Canton, T.0000-0001-5078-9044
Darsow-Fromm, C.0000-0001-9602-0388
Datrier, L. E. H.0000-0002-0290-3129
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
Degallaix, J.0000-0002-1019-6911
De Laurentis, M.0000-0002-9945-682X
Deléglise, S.0000-0002-8680-5170
De Lillo, F.0000-0003-4977-0789
De Lillo, N.0000-0002-5083-3639
Del Pozzo, W.0000-0003-3978-2030
DeMarchi, L. M.0000-0003-4587-2366
De Matteis, F.0000-0001-7860-9754
Depasse, A.0000-0003-1014-8394
De Pietri, R.0000-0003-1556-8304
De Rosa, R.0000-0002-4918-0247
DeSalvo, R.0000-0002-4818-0296
De Simone, R.0000-0002-7555-8856
Di Giorgio, C.0000-0003-2127-3991
Di Giovanni, F.0000-0001-8568-9334
Di Girolamo, T.0000-0003-2339-4471
Di Lieto, A.0000-0002-4787-0754
Di Pace, S.0000-0001-6759-5676
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Eikenberry, S. S.0000-0002-1332-5061
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Fritschel, P.0000-0003-1983-3187
Fronzé, G. G.0000-0003-0966-4279
García-Quirós, C.0000-0002-8059-2477
Ghosh, Archisman0000-0003-0423-3533
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.0000-0002-7709-8638
Hernandez Vivanco, F.0000-0002-1942-7608
Hourihane, S.0000-0002-9152-0719
JaberianHamedan, V.0000-0003-3605-4169
Jaranowski, P.0000-0001-8085-3414
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Kijbunchoo, N.0000-0002-2874-1228
Kinley-Hanlon, M.0000-0002-7367-8002
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Kong, A. K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Lazzarini, A.0000-0002-5993-8808
Li, A. K. Y.0000-0001-6728-6523
Llorens-Monteagudo, M.0000-0003-4984-2527
Lo, R. K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
Lovelace, G.0000-0002-7084-1070
MacMillan, I. A. O.0000-0002-6927-1031
Magaña Hernandez, I.0000-0003-2362-0459
Magazzù, C.0000-0002-9913-381X
Magee, Ryan0000-0001-9769-531X
Maggiore, R.0000-0001-5140-779X
Magnozzi, M.0000-0003-4512-8430
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Masso-Reid, M.0000-0001-6177-8105
Mastrogiovanni, S.0000-0003-1606-4183
Mateu-Lucena, M.0000-0003-4817-6913
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
Matiushechkina, M.0000-0002-9957-8720
Mavalvala, N.0000-0003-0219-9706
McCuller, L.0000-0003-0851-0593
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
Menendez-Vazquez, A.0000-0002-0828-8219
Meshkov, S.0000-0002-7973-5338
Michaloliakos, I.0000-0003-2980-358X
Miravet-Tenés, M.0000-0002-8766-1156
Mo, Geoffrey0000-0001-6331-112X
Molina-Ruiz, M.0000-0003-4892-3042
Mow-Lowry, C. M.0000-0002-0351-4555
Ng, S. W. S.0000-0001-5843-1434
Nguyen Quynh, L.0000-0002-1828-3702
O’Shaughnessy, R.0000-0001-5832-8517
Pang, P. T. H.0000-0001-7041-3239
Paoletti, F.0000-0001-8898-1963
Pascucci, D.0000-0003-1907-0175
Passaquieti, R.0000-0003-4753-9428
Peña Arellano, F. E.0000-0002-8516-5159
Pfeiffer, H. P.0000-0001-9288-519X
Piccinni, O. J.0000-0001-5478-3950
Piendibene, M.0000-0003-2434-488X
Piergiovanni, F.0000-0001-8063-828X
Piotrzkowski, K.0000-0002-6226-957X
Porter, E. K.0000-0001-7042-0914
Quetschke, V.0000-0002-8012-4868
Quitzow-James, R.0000-0003-1233-633X
Ramos-Buades, A.0000-0002-6874-7421
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Renzini, A.0000-0002-7093-7355
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Romero-Rodríguez, A.0000-0003-2275-4164
Romero-Shaw, I. M.0000-0002-4181-8090
Sakellariadou, M.0000-0002-2715-1517
Sanchez, L. E.0000-0001-6903-5736
Scheel, M.0000-0001-6656-9134
Schiworski, M. G.0000-0001-9298-004X
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Seglar-Arroyo, M.0000-0001-8654-409X
Shoemaker, D. H.0000-0002-4147-2560
Shoemaker, D. M.0000-0002-9899-6357
Slagmolen, B. J. J.0000-0002-2471-3828
Smith, R. J. E.0000-0001-8516-3324
Talbot, C.0000-0003-2053-5582
Tapia San Martín, E. N.0000-0002-4817-5606
Torres-Forné, A.0000-0001-8709-5118
Tosta e Melo, I.0000-0001-5833-4052
Trapananti, A.0000-0001-7763-5758
Travasso, F.0000-0002-4653-6156
Tringali, M. C.0000-0001-5087-189X
Tripathee, A.0000-0002-6976-5576
Trovato, A.0000-0002-9714-1904
Trozzo, L.0000-0002-8803-6715
Tso, R.0000-0003-4464-0117
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Valentini, M.0000-0003-1215-4552
van Beuzekom, M.0000-0002-0500-1286
van den Brand, J. F. J.0000-0003-4434-5353
van Heijningen, J. V.0000-0002-8391-7513
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Willis, J. L.0000-0002-9929-0225
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Yu, Haocun0000-0002-7597-098X
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2022 American Physical Society. (Received 25 October 2021; revised 22 February 2022; accepted 17 May 2022; published 3 June 2022) This material is based upon work supported by NSF’s LIGO Laboratory which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación and Ministerio de Universidades, the Conselleria de Fons Europeus, Universitat i Cultura and the Direcció General de Política Universitaria i Recerca del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the European Union—European Regional Development Fund; Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Social Funds (ESF), the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: No. JP17H06358, No. JP17H06361 and No. JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) No. 17H06133 and No. 20H05639, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A) 20A203: No. JP20H05854, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work.
Group:Astronomy Department, LIGO, TAPIR
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)UNSPECIFIED
Direcció General de Política Universitària i Recerca, Govern Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria de Innovación, Universidades, Ciencia y Sociedad Digital, Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Social FundUNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Institut des Origines de LyonUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e InovaçãoUNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)26000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06358
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06361
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06364
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H06133
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20H05639
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H05854
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)AS-CDA-105-M06
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research OrganizationUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria de Fons Europeus, Universitat i CulturaUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Paris Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:12
DOI:10.1103/physrevd.105.122001
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220808-887240000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220808-887240000
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116181
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:11 Aug 2022 23:48
Last Modified:08 Nov 2022 20:40

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