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Biotic community and landscape changes around the Eocene–Oligocene transition at Shapaja, Peruvian Amazonia: Regional or global drivers?

Antoine, Pierre-Olivier and Yans, Johan and Aliaga Castillo, Angélica and Stutz, Narla and Abello, M. Alejandra and Adnet, Sylvain and Andriolli Custódio, Michele and Benites-Palomino, Aldo and Billet, Guillaume and Boivin, Myriam and Herrera, Fabiany and Jaramillo, Carlos and Mártinez, Camila and Moreno, Federico and Navarrete, Rosa E. and Negri, Francisco Ricardo and Parra, Francisco and Pujos, François and Rage, Jean-Claude and Ribeiro, Ana Maria and Robinet, Céline and Roddaz, Martin and Tejada-Lara, Julia V. and Varas-Malca, Rafael and Santos, Roberto Ventura and Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo and Marivaux, Laurent (2021) Biotic community and landscape changes around the Eocene–Oligocene transition at Shapaja, Peruvian Amazonia: Regional or global drivers? Global and Planetary Change, 202 . Art. No. 103512. ISSN 0921-8181. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103512.

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Since 2012, we have investigated a stratigraphic section encompassing the late Eocene–earliest Oligocene interval at Shapaja (Tarapoto area, Peruvian Amazonia, ca. 7°S), through paleontological and geological fieldwork. The measured sedimentary series (120 m-thick [West] plus 90 m-thick [East]), assigned to the upper member of the Pozo Formation, records fluvial micro-conglomeratic lenses intercalated with floodplain and evaporite-rich fine red deposits, estuarine/coastal-plain tidally-influenced fine sandstones, and oxbow lake nodule-rich blue clays. This sedimentary shift coincides locally with the demise of the large Eocene coastal-plain wetland known as Pozo System. The late Eocene–early Oligocene Shapaja section was extensively sampled for chemostratigraphy (δ¹³C on dispersed organic matter and pedogenic carbonate nodules), which in turn allowed for refining the location of the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) and other climatic events recognized at a global scale (i.e., Oi-1 and Oi-1a). The section has yielded nine fossil localities with plant remains (leaves, wood, charophytes, and palynomorphs), mollusks, decapods, and/or vertebrates (selachians, actinopterygians, lungfishes, amphibians, sauropsids, and mammals), documenting ~130 distinct taxa. Four localities of the upper member of the Pozo Formation at Shapaja predate the EOT, one is clearly within the EOT, while four are earliest/early Oligocene in age. The small leaf impressions found along the Shapaja section could be indicative of dry and/or seasonal conditions for this region throughout and after the EOT. Monkeys, indicative of tropical rainforest environments, are only recorded in a latest Eocene locality (TAR-21). Two biotic turnovers are perceptible in the selachian, metatherian, and rodent communities, well before the EOT [~35–36 Ma] and a few hundred thousand years after the EOT [~33 Ma]. The latter turnover seems to be primarily related to a global sea-level drop (ichthyofauna: marine-littoral elements replaced by obligate freshwater taxa) and/or the onset of a drier and more seasonal climate in early Oligocene times (terrestrial components). Changes in the structure of the Shapaja paleocommunities were mostly driven by the flexural subsidence during the late Eocene, and then globally driven by the earliest Oligocene climatic deterioration.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription material 1: Taxonomic lists per locality in the Shapaja section, San Matin Department, Peru material 2
Antoine, Pierre-Olivier0000-0001-9122-1818
Yans, Johan0000-0001-7590-0298
Stutz, Narla0000-0002-1937-3902
Adnet, Sylvain0000-0001-7188-1560
Andriolli Custódio, Michele0000-0002-3543-8278
Benites-Palomino, Aldo0000-0002-5409-6322
Billet, Guillaume0000-0002-3200-1548
Boivin, Myriam0000-0002-5240-9460
Herrera, Fabiany0000-0002-2412-672X
Jaramillo, Carlos0000-0002-2616-5079
Mártinez, Camila0000-0001-5832-0451
Moreno, Federico0000-0003-4217-0190
Pujos, François0000-0002-6267-3927
Rage, Jean-Claude0000-0002-2652-1168
Ribeiro, Ana Maria0000-0003-4167-8558
Robinet, Céline0000-0002-6036-3976
Roddaz, Martin0000-0001-8562-8582
Tejada-Lara, Julia V.0000-0003-2307-6764
Varas-Malca, Rafael0000-0002-4435-8229
Santos, Roberto Ventura0000-0001-6071-8100
Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo0000-0001-9990-8841
Marivaux, Laurent0000-0002-2882-0874
Additional Information:© 2021 Elsevier. Received 12 December 2020, Revised 22 April 2021, Accepted 7 May 2021, Available online 13 May 2021, Version of Record 19 May 2021. We are indebted to Adriana Albino (Museo de La Plata, Argentina) for her taxonomic assignment of squamate remains. Fieldwork and post-field analyses in Peru were carried out thanks to the support from the National Geographic Society (grant n° 9679-15) and the Campus France program of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs to POA, from the Doctoral School SIBAGHE/Gaia of the Montpellier University to MB, the Oak Spring Garden Foundation to F. Herrera and from the Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, and The Leakey Foundation to LM. This work was further supported by an “Investissements d'Avenir” grant managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (CEBA, ANR-10-LABX-25-01) and by the cooperative programs ECOS-FonCyT (A14-U01) and CoopIntEER CNRS-CONICET (n°252540), in the frame of the ongoing cooperation agreement between the Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos (Lima, Peru) and the Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution-Université de Montpellier. We are particularly indebted to the invited editor, Carina Hoorn, to Robin M. D. Beck and to an anonymous reviewer for their useful comments and helpful suggestions on a previous version of the manuscript. This is the article ISEM-2021-039 SUD. All authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
Group:Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Geographic Society9679-15
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (France)UNSPECIFIED
Montpellier UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Oak Spring Garden FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier (ISEM)UNSPECIFIED
Leakey FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)ANR-10-LABX-25-01
Fondo para la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (FONCYT)A14-U01
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)252540
Subject Keywords:Andes-Amazonia transition; Pozo System demise; Paleontology; Sedimentary geology; Chemostratigraphy; Paleoenvironments
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
ISEM2021-039 SUD
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220810-751670000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Pierre-Olivier Antoine, Johan Yans, Angélica Aliaga Castillo, Narla Stutz, M. Alejandra Abello, Sylvain Adnet, Michele Andriolli Custódio, Aldo Benites-Palomino, Guillaume Billet, Myriam Boivin, Fabiany Herrera, Carlos Jaramillo, Camila Mártinez, Federico Moreno, Rosa E. Navarrete, Francisco Ricardo Negri, Francisco Parra, François Pujos, Jean-Claude Rage, Ana Maria Ribeiro, Céline Robinet, Martin Roddaz, Julia V. Tejada-Lara, Rafael Varas-Malca, Roberto Ventura Santos, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Laurent Marivaux, Biotic community and landscape changes around the Eocene–Oligocene transition at Shapaja, Peruvian Amazonia: Regional or global drivers?, Global and Planetary Change, Volume 202, 2021, 103512, ISSN 0921-8181,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116209
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:11 Aug 2022 23:13
Last Modified:14 Mar 2023 16:50

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