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TOI-1452 b: SPIRou and TESS Reveal a Super-Earth in a Temperate Orbit Transiting an M4 Dwarf

Cadieux, Charles and Doyon, René and Plotnykov, Mykhaylo and Hébrard, Guillaume and Jahandar, Farbod and Artigau, Étienne and Valencia, Diana and Cook, Neil J. and Martioli, Eder and Vandal, Thomas and Donati, Jean-François and Cloutier, Ryan and Narita, Norio and Fukui, Akihiko and Hirano, Teruyuki and Bouchy, François and Cowan, Nicolas B. and Gonzales, Erica J. and Ciardi, David R. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Arnold, Luc and Benneke, Björn and Boisse, Isabelle and Bonfils, Xavier and Carmona, Andrés and Cortés-Zuleta, Pía and Delfosse, Xavier and Forveille, Thierry and Fouqué, Pascal and Gomes da Silva, João and Jenkins, Jon M. and Kiefer, Flavien and Kóspál, Ágnes and Lafrenière, David and Martins, Jorge H. C. and Moutou, Claire and do Nascimento, J.-D. and Ould-Elhkim, Merwan and Pelletier, Stefan and Twicken, Joseph D. and Bouma, Luke G. and Cartwright, Scott and Darveau-Bernier, Antoine and Grankin, Konstantin and Ikoma, Masahiro and Kagetani, Taiki and Kawauchi, Kiyoe and Kodama, Takanori and Kotani, Takayuki and Latham, David W. and Menou, Kristen and Ricker, George and Seager, Sara and Tamura, Motohide and Vanderspek, Roland and Watanabe, Noriharu (2022) TOI-1452 b: SPIRou and TESS Reveal a Super-Earth in a Temperate Orbit Transiting an M4 Dwarf. Astronomical Journal, 164 (3). Art. No. 96. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac7cea.

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Exploring the properties of exoplanets near or inside the radius valley provides insight on the transition from the rocky super-Earths to the larger, hydrogen-rich atmosphere mini-Neptunes. Here, we report the discovery of TOI-1452b, a transiting super-Earth (Rₚ = 1.67 ± 0.07 R_⊕) in an 11.1 day temperate orbit (T_(eq) = 326 ± 7 K) around the primary member (H = 10.0, T_(eff) = 3185 ± 50 K) of a nearby visual-binary M dwarf. The transits were first detected by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, then successfully isolated between the two 3.″2 companions with ground-based photometry from the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and MuSCAT3. The planetary nature of TOI-1452b was established through high-precision velocimetry with the near-infrared SPIRou spectropolarimeter as part of the ongoing SPIRou Legacy Survey. The measured planetary mass (4.8 ± 1.3 M_⊕) and inferred bulk density (5.6_(-1.6)^(+1.8) g cm⁻³) is suggestive of a rocky core surrounded by a volatile-rich envelope. More quantitatively, the mass and radius of TOI-1452b, combined with the stellar abundance of refractory elements (Fe, Mg, and Si) measured by SPIRou, is consistent with a core-mass fraction of 18% ± 6% and a water-mass fraction of 22₋₁₃⁺²¹%. The water world candidate TOI-1452b is a prime target for future atmospheric characterization with JWST, featuring a transmission spectroscopy metric similar to other well-known temperate small planets such as LHS 1140b and K2-18 b. The system is located near Webb’s northern continuous viewing zone, implying that is can be followed at almost any moment of the year.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Cadieux, Charles0000-0001-9291-5555
Doyon, René0000-0001-5485-4675
Plotnykov, Mykhaylo0000-0002-9479-2744
Hébrard, Guillaume0000-0001-5450-7067
Jahandar, Farbod0000-0003-0029-2835
Artigau, Étienne0000-0003-3506-5667
Valencia, Diana0000-0003-3993-4030
Cook, Neil J.0000-0003-4166-4121
Martioli, Eder0000-0002-5084-168X
Vandal, Thomas0000-0002-5922-8267
Donati, Jean-François0000-0001-5541-2887
Cloutier, Ryan0000-0001-5383-9393
Narita, Norio0000-0001-8511-2981
Fukui, Akihiko0000-0002-4909-5763
Hirano, Teruyuki0000-0003-3618-7535
Bouchy, François0000-0002-7613-393X
Cowan, Nicolas B.0000-0001-6129-5699
Gonzales, Erica J.0000-0002-9329-2190
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Arnold, Luc0000-0002-0111-1234
Benneke, Björn0000-0001-5578-1498
Boisse, Isabelle0000-0002-1024-9841
Bonfils, Xavier0000-0001-9003-8894
Carmona, Andrés0000-0003-2471-1299
Cortés-Zuleta, Pía0000-0002-6174-4666
Delfosse, Xavier0000-0001-5099-7978
Forveille, Thierry0000-0003-0536-4607
Fouqué, Pascal0000-0002-1436-7351
Gomes da Silva, João0000-0001-8056-9202
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Kiefer, Flavien0000-0001-9129-4929
Kóspál, Ágnes0000-0001-7157-6275
Lafrenière, David0000-0002-6780-4252
Martins, Jorge H. C.0000-0002-1532-9082
Moutou, Claire0000-0002-2842-3924
do Nascimento, J.-D.0000-0001-7804-2145
Pelletier, Stefan0000-0002-8573-805X
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Bouma, Luke G.0000-0002-0514-5538
Darveau-Bernier, Antoine0000-0002-7786-0661
Grankin, Konstantin0000-0001-5707-8448
Ikoma, Masahiro0000-0002-5658-5971
Kagetani, Taiki0000-0002-5331-6637
Kawauchi, Kiyoe0000-0003-1205-5108
Kodama, Takanori0000-0001-9032-5826
Kotani, Takayuki0000-0001-6181-3142
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Ricker, George0000-0003-2058-6662
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Tamura, Motohide0000-0002-6510-0681
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Watanabe, Noriharu0000-0002-7522-8195
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 April 20; revised 2022 June 22; accepted 2022 June 27; published 2022 August 12. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Based on observations obtained at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated from the summit of Maunakea by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and the University of Hawaii. The observations at the CFHT were performed with care and respect from the summit of Maunakea, which is a significant cultural and historic site. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, financed by Université de Montréal, Université Laval, the Canada Economic Development program, and the Ministère de l'Économie et de l'Innovation. This paper is also based on observations made with the MuSCAT3 instrument, developed by the Astrobiology Center and under financial supports by JSPS KAKENHI (JP18H05439) and JST PRESTO (JPMJPR1775), at Faulkes Telescope North on Maui, HI, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory. This work is partly supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Institute for Research on Exoplanets through the Trottier Family Foundation. This work is partly supported by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI grant No. JP22000005, JP15H02063, JP17H04574, JP18H05439, JP18H05442, JP19K14783, JP21H00035, JP21K13975, JP21K20376, JST CREST grant No. JPMJCR1761, and the Astrobiology Center of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS; grant No. AB031010, AB031014). We thank Dr. Martin Turbet for the suggestions to improve the discussion section. We acknowledge very useful feedback and discussion from Dr. Ansgar Reiners, regarding the importance to properly check the contamination from the nearby companion in the SPIRou and IRD spectra and its effect on the final radial velocities. J.F.D. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the H2020 research & innovation program (grant agreement #740651 NewWorlds). This work has been carried out within the framework of the NCCR PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. P.C. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; her participation in the program has benefited this work. A.C. and X.D. acknowledges funding from the ANR of France under contract number ANR-18-CE31-0019 (SPlaSH). This work is supported by the French National Research Agency in the framework of the Investissements d'Avenir program (ANR-15-IDEX-02), through the funding of the "Origin of Life" project of the Grenoble-Alpes University. F.K. acknowledge the ANR project [SPlaSH] from the French Agence Nationale de Recherche with reference ANR-18-CE31-0019-02. J.H.C.M. is supported in the form of a work contract funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) with the reference DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0007; and also supported from FCT through national funds and by FEDER-Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional through COMPETE2020- Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização for these grants UIDB/04434/2020 & UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, PTDC/FIS-AST/29942/2017. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 716155 (SACCRED). K.G. acknowledges the partial support from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the RF (grant 075-15-2020-780). T.V. acknowledges funding from the Fonds de Recherche du Québec–Nature et Technologie (FRQNT). Facilities: TESS, OMM-PESTO, MuSCAT3, Keck II/NIRC2, CFHT/SPIRou, Subaru/IRD. Software: emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013); Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018); radvel (Fulton et al. 2018); matplotlib (Hunter 2007); celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017); celerite2 (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017; Foreman-Mackey 2018); juliet (Espinoza et al. 2019); batman (Kreidberg 2015); SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020); NumPy (Harris et al. 2020); photutils (Bradley et al. 2020); Tapir (Jensen 2013); AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017); TRILEGAL (Girardi et al. 2012).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Trottier Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP22000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19K14783
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21H00035
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21K13975
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21K20376
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJCR1761
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanAB031010
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanAB031014
European Research Council (ERC)740651
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)ANR-18-CE31-0019
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)ANR-15-IDEX-02
Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)ANR-18-CE31-0019-02
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0007
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/29942/2017
European Research Council (ERC)716155
Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation075-15-2020-780
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanets; Super Earths; M dwarf stars
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanets (498); Super Earths (1655); M dwarf stars (982)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220815-504866000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Charles Cadieux et al 2022 AJ 164 96
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116292
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Aug 2022 14:16
Last Modified:16 Aug 2022 14:16

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