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Establishing Dust Rings and Forming Planets Within Them

Lee, Eve J. and Fuentes, J. R. and Hopkins, Philip F. (2022) Establishing Dust Rings and Forming Planets Within Them. . (Unpublished)

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Radio images of protoplanetary disks demonstrate that dust grains tend to organize themselves into rings. These rings may be a consequence of dust trapping within gas pressure maxima wherein the local high dust-to-gas ratio is expected to trigger the formation of planetesimals and eventually planets. We revisit the behavior of dust near gas pressure perturbations enforced by a prescribed Gaussian forcing and by a planet in two-dimensional, shearing box simulations. We show analytically and numerically that when traveling through Gaussian-like gas perturbations, dust grains are expected to clump not at the formal center of the gas pressure bump but at least 1--2 gas scale heights away, so that with the non-zero relative velocities between gas and grains, drag-induced instabilities can remain active. Over time, the dust feedback complicates the gas pressure profile, creating multiple local maxima. These dust rings are long-lived except when forced by a planet whereby particles with Stokes parameter τₛ ≲ 0.05 are advected out of the ring within a few drift timescales. Scaled to the properties of ALMA disks, we find that if a dust clump massive enough to trigger pebble accretion is nucleated in our simulated dust rings, then such a clump would ingest the entire dust ring well within ∼1 Myr. To ensure the survival of the dust rings, we favor a non-planetary origin and typical grain size τₛ < 0.05. Planet-driven rings may still be possible but if so we would expect the orbital distance of the dust rings to be larger for older systems.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemJournal article
Lee, Eve J.0000-0002-1228-9820
Fuentes, J. R.0000-0003-2124-9764
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Additional Information:Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). We thank Jonathan Squires for helpful discussions and Ge Chen for providing preliminary analyses. E.J.L. gratefully acknowledges support by the Sherman Fairchild Fellowship at Caltech, by NSERC, by le Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FRQNT), by McGill Space Institute, and by the William Dawson Scholarship from McGill University. J.R.F. acknowledges support by a Mitacs Research Training Award, a McGill Space Institute (MSI) Fellowship, and thanks the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Colorado Boulder, for hospitality. Support for PFH was provided by NSF Research Grants 1911233, 20009234, 2108318, NSF CAREER grant 1455342, NASA grants 80NSSC18K0562, HST-AR-15800. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Calcul Québec ( and Compute Canada (
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
McGill Space InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220816-222021832
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116335
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Aug 2022 21:05
Last Modified:18 Oct 2022 21:35

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