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Spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity in FIRE-2 dwarfs: late-time evolution of metallicity relations in simulations with feedback and mergers

Porter, Lori E. and Orr, Matthew E. and Burkhart, Blakesley and Wetzel, Andrew and Ma, Xiangcheng and Hopkins, Philip F. and Emerick, Andrew (2022) Spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity in FIRE-2 dwarfs: late-time evolution of metallicity relations in simulations with feedback and mergers. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 515 (3). pp. 3555-3576. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac1958. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220817-927599000

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Abstract

We present an analysis of spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity relations in five dwarf galaxies (⁠Mₕₐₗₒ ≈ 10¹¹ M_⊙⁠, M⋆ ≈ 10^(8.8)−10^(9.6) M_⊙⁠) from the FIRE-2 (Feedback in Realistic Environments) cosmological zoom-in simulation suite, which include an explicit model for sub-grid turbulent mixing of metals in gas, near z ≈ 0, over a period of 1.4 Gyr, and compare our findings with observations. While these dwarf galaxies represent a diverse sample, we find that all simulated galaxies match the observed mass–metallicity (MZR) and mass–metallicity gradient (MZGR) relations. We note that in all five galaxies, the metallicities are effectively identical between phases of the interstellar medium (ISM), with 95 per cent of the gas being within ±0.1 dex between the cold and dense gas (T < 500 K and n_H > 1 cm⁻³), ionized gas (near the HαT ≈ 10⁴ K ridge-line), and nebular regions (ionized gas where the 10 Myr-averaged star formation rate is non-zero). We find that most of the scatter in relative metallicity between cold dense gas and ionized gas/nebular regions can be attributed to either local starburst events or metal-poor inflows. We also note the presence of a major merger in one of our galaxies, m11e, with a substantial impact on the metallicity distribution in the spatially resolved map, showing two strong metallicity peaks and triggering a starburst in the main galaxy.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac1958DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.06572arXivDiscussion Paper
http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/GIZMO.htmlRelated ItemGIZMO code
https://fire.northwestern.edu/data/Related ItemAdditional data including simulation snapshots, initial conditions, and derived data products
http://flathub.flatironinstitute.org/fireRelated ItemFIRE-2 simulations
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Porter, Lori E.0000-0002-7795-2267
Orr, Matthew E.0000-0003-1053-3081
Burkhart, Blakesley0000-0001-5817-5944
Wetzel, Andrew0000-0003-0603-8942
Ma, Xiangcheng0000-0001-8091-2349
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Emerick, Andrew0000-0003-2807-328X
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Received: 06 April 2022. Revision received: 06 July 2022. Accepted: 07 July 2022. Published: 18 July 2022. Corrected and typeset: 05 August 2022. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for providing comments and suggestions that improved the quality of the manuscript. LEP is grateful to the University of Louisville’s Brown Fellows Program for financial support, funded by the James Graham Brown Foundation. LEP is also thankful to the Flatiron Institute for continued financial support and resources. BB is grateful for generous support by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. AW received support from: National Science Foundation via CAREER award AST-2045928 and grant AST-2107772; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ATP grant 80NSSC20K0513; HST grants AR-15809 and GO-15902 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data supporting the plots within this article are available on reasonable request to the corresponding author. A public version of the GIZMO code is available at http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/GIZMO.html. Additional data including simulation snapshots, initial conditions, and derived data products are available at https://fire.northwestern.edu/data/. The FIRE-2 simulations are publicly available (Wetzel et al. 2022) at http://flathub.flatironinstitute.org/fire.
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
James Graham Brown FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-2045928
NSFAST-2107772
NASA80NSSC20K0513
NASAHST-AR-15809
NASAHST-GO-15902
Subject Keywords:ISM: abundances, ISM: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: dwarf, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: ISM
Issue or Number:3
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stac1958
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220817-927599000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220817-927599000
Official Citation:Lori E Porter, Matthew E Orr, Blakesley Burkhart, Andrew Wetzel, Xiangcheng Ma, Philip F Hopkins, Andrew Emerick, Spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity in FIRE-2 dwarfs: late-time evolution of metallicity relations in simulations with feedback and mergers, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 515, Issue 3, September 2022, Pages 3555–3576, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac1958
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116346
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Aug 2022 19:13
Last Modified:17 Aug 2022 19:13

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