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Foraging with MUSHROOMS: A Mixed-integer Linear Programming Scheduler for Multimessenger Target of Opportunity Searches with the Zwicky Transient Facility

Parazin, B. and Coughlin, Michael W. and Singer, Leo P. and Gupta, Vaidehi and Anand, Shreya (2022) Foraging with MUSHROOMS: A Mixed-integer Linear Programming Scheduler for Multimessenger Target of Opportunity Searches with the Zwicky Transient Facility. Astrophysical Journal, 935 (2). Art. No. 87. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac7fa2.

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Electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational-wave detections is very resource intensive, taking up hours of limited observation time on dozens of telescopes. Creating more efficient schedules for follow-up will lead to a commensurate increase in counterpart location efficiency without using more telescope time. Widely used in operations research and telescope scheduling, mixed-integer linear programming is a strong candidate to produce these higher-efficiency schedules, as it can make use of powerful commercial solvers that find globally optimal solutions to provided problems. We detail a new target-of-opportunity scheduling algorithm designed with Zwicky Transient Facility in mind that uses mixed-integer linear programming. We compare its performance to gwemopt, the tuned heuristic scheduler used by the Zwicky Transient Facility and other facilities during the third LIGO–Virgo gravitational-wave observing run. This new algorithm uses variable-length observing blocks to enforce cadence requirements and to ensure field observability, along with having a secondary optimization step to minimize slew time. We show that by employing a hybrid method utilizing both this scheduler and gwemopt, the previous scheduler used, in concert, we can achieve an average improvement in detection efficiency of 3%–11% over gwemopt alone for a simulated binary neutron star merger data set consistent with LIGO–Virgo’s third observing run, highlighting the potential of mixed-integer target of opportunity schedulers for future multimessenger follow-up surveys.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Parazin, B.0000-0002-3155-0385
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Gupta, Vaidehi0000-0002-7672-0480
Anand, Shreya0000-0003-3768-7515
Additional Information:We thank Alexander Criswell for their feedback when writing the abstract. B.P. acknowledges support from a Northeastern Lawrence Co-op Fellowship. M.W.C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation with grant Nos. PHY-2010970 and OAC-2117997. S.A. acknowledges support from the GROWTH National Science Foundation PIRE grant 1545949.
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Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220826-428674800
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116585
Deposited By: Melissa Ray
Deposited On:31 Aug 2022 16:06
Last Modified:31 Aug 2022 16:06

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