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The ALPINE–ALMA [C II] Survey: The Infrared–Radio Correlation and Active Galactic Nucleus Fraction of Star-forming Galaxies at z ∼ 4.4–5.9

Shen, Lu and Lemaux, Brian C. and Lubin, Lori M. and Liu, Guilin and Béthermin, Matthieu and Boquien, Médéric and Cucciati, Olga and Le Fèvre, Olivier and Talia, Margherita and Vergani, Daniela and Zamorani, Gianni and Faisst, Andreas L. and Ginolfi, Michele and Gruppioni, Carlotta and Jones, Gareth C. and Bardelli, Sandro and Hathi, Nimish and Koekemoer, Anton M. and Romano, Michael and Schaerer, Daniel and Zucca, Elena and Fang, Wenjuan and Forrest, Ben and Gal, Roy and Hung, Denise and Shah, Ekta A. and Staab, Priti and Vanderhoof, Brittany and Ibar, Eduardo (2022) The ALPINE–ALMA [C II] Survey: The Infrared–Radio Correlation and Active Galactic Nucleus Fraction of Star-forming Galaxies at z ∼ 4.4–5.9. Astrophysical Journal, 935 (2). p. 177. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac81c5.

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We present the radio properties of 66 spectroscopically confirmed normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 4.4 < z < 5.9 in the COSMOS field that were [C II]-detected in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE). We separate these galaxies (“C II-detected-all”) into lower-redshift (“C II-detected-lz”; 〈z〉 = 4.5) and higher-redshift (“C II-detected-hz”; 〈z〉 = 5.6) subsamples, and stack multiwavelength imaging for each subsample from X-ray to radio bands. A radio signal is detected in the stacked 3 GHz images of the C II-detected-all and lz samples at ≳3σ. We find that the infrared–radio correlation of our sample, quantified by q_TIR, is lower than the local relation for normal SFGs at a ∼3σ significance level, and is instead broadly consistent with that of bright submillimeter galaxies at 2 < z < 5. Neither of these samples show evidence of dominant active galactic nucleus activity in their stacked spectral energy distributions (SEDs), UV spectra, or stacked X-ray images. Although we cannot rule out the possible effects of the assumed spectral index and applied infrared SED templates in causing these differences, at least partially, the lower obscured fraction of star formation than at lower redshift can alleviate the tension between our stacked q_(TIR)s and those of local normal SFGs. It is possible that the dust buildup, which primarily governs the infrared emission, in addition to older stellar populations, has not had enough time to occur fully in these galaxies, whereas the radio emission can respond on a more rapid timescale. Therefore, we might expect a lower q_TIR to be a general property of high-redshift SFGs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Article
Shen, Lu0000-0001-9495-7759
Lemaux, Brian C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Lubin, Lori M.0000-0003-2119-8151
Liu, Guilin0000-0003-2390-7927
Béthermin, Matthieu0000-0002-3915-2015
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Cucciati, Olga0000-0002-9336-7551
Le Fèvre, Olivier0000-0001-5891-2596
Talia, Margherita0000-0003-4352-2063
Vergani, Daniela0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, Gianni0000-0002-2318-301X
Faisst, Andreas L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Ginolfi, Michele0000-0002-9122-1700
Gruppioni, Carlotta0000-0002-5836-4056
Bardelli, Sandro0000-0002-8900-0298
Hathi, Nimish0000-0001-6145-5090
Koekemoer, Anton M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Romano, Michael0000-0002-9948-3916
Schaerer, Daniel0000-0001-7144-7182
Zucca, Elena0000-0002-5845-8132
Fang, Wenjuan0000-0003-4987-7340
Forrest, Ben0000-0001-6003-0541
Gal, Roy0000-0001-8255-6560
Hung, Denise0000-0001-7523-140X
Shah, Ekta A.0000-0001-7811-9042
Staab, Priti0000-0002-8877-4320
Vanderhoof, Brittany0000-0002-8163-0172
Additional Information:L.S. acknowledges the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) grant No. 12003030 and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. G.L. acknowledges research grants from the China Manned Space Project (No. CMS-CSST2021-A06 and No. CMS-CSST-2021-A07), as well as the NSFC grant No. 11421303. W.F. acknowledges the NSFC grant No. 11773024. This work is also based in part on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program (GO 12177 and 12328) with the NASA/ESA HST, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Part of the material presented herein is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under NASA grant no. 80NSSC21K0986. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1908422. M.B. gratefully acknowledges support from the ANID BASAL project FB210003 and the FONDECYT regular grant 1211000. G.C.J. acknowledges ERC Advanced Grants 695671 “QUENCH” and 789056 “First Galaxies,” as well as support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). M.R. acknowledges support from Narodowe Centrum Nauki (UMO-2020/38/E/ST9/00077). E.S. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation. E.I. acknowledges funding from ANID FONDECYT Regular 1221846. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This study is based on data taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, which is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Furthermore, this work is based on data from the W.M. Keck Observatory, the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and data retrieved from the HSC data archive system, which is operated by the Subaru Telescope and Astronomy Data Center at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. We wish to thank the indigenous Hawaiian community for allowing us to be guests on their sacred mountain, a privilege, without which this work would not have been possible. We are most fortunate to have been able to conduct observations from this site.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFC ∣ Young Scientists Fund12003030
National Science Foundation1908422
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central UniversitiesUNSPECIFIED
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A06
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A07
NASAGO 12177
NASAGO 12328
ANID BASAL projectFB210003
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cient�fico y Tecnol�gico (FONDECYT)1211000
European Research Council (ERC)695671
European Research Council (ERC)789056
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2020/38/E/ST9/00077
NSF Cybertraining Grant1829740
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cient�fico y Tecnol�gico (FONDECYT)1221846
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220830-526643700
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116639
Deposited By: Donna Wrublewski
Deposited On:07 Sep 2022 22:30
Last Modified:07 Sep 2022 22:30

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