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Comparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO₂, HONO, No_y, and CO during FIREX-AQ

Bourgeois, Ilann and Peischl, Jeff and Neuman, J. Andrew and Brown, Steven S. and Allen, Hannah M. and Campuzano-Jost, Pedro and Coggon, Matthew M. and DiGangi, Joshua P. and Diskin, Glenn S. and Gilman, Jessica B. and Gkatzelis, Georgios I. and Guo, Hongyu and Halliday, Hannah A. and Hanisco, Thomas F. and Holmes, Christopher D. and Huey, L. Gregory and Jimenez, Jose L. and Lamplugh, Aaron D. and Lee, Young Ro and Lindaas, Jakob and Moore, Richard H. and Nault, Benjamin A. and Nowak, John B. and Pagonis, Demetrios and Rickly, Pamela S. and Robinson, Michael A. and Rollins, Andrew M. and Selimovic, Vanessa and St. Clair, Jason M. and Tanner, David and Vasquez, Krystal T. and Veres, Patrick R. and Warneke, Carsten and Wennberg, Paul O. and Washenfelder, Rebecca A. and Wiggins, Elizabeth B. and Womack, Caroline C. and Xu, Lu and Zarzana, Kyle J. and Ryerson, Thomas B. (2022) Comparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO₂, HONO, No_y, and CO during FIREX-AQ. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 15 (16). pp. 4901-4930. ISSN 1867-8548. doi:10.5194/amt-15-4901-2022.

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We present a comparison of fast-response instruments installed onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft that measured nitrogen oxides (NO and NO₂), nitrous acid (HONO), total reactive odd nitrogen (measured both as the total (NO_y) and from the sum of individually measured species (ΣNO_y)), and carbon monoxide (CO) in the troposphere during the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) campaign. By targeting smoke from summertime wildfires, prescribed fires, and agricultural burns across the continental United States, FIREX-AQ provided a unique opportunity to investigate measurement accuracy in concentrated plumes where hundreds of species coexist. Here, we compare NO measurements by chemiluminescence (CL) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF); NO₂ measurements by CL, LIF, and cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (CES); HONO measurements by CES and iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS); and CO measurements by tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS). Additionally, total NO_y measurements using the CL instrument were compared with ΣNO_y (= NO + NO₂ + HONO + nitric acid (HNO₃) + acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs) + submicrometer particulate nitrate (pNO₃)). Other NO_y species were not included in ΣNO_y as they either contributed minimally to it (e.g., C₁–C₅ alkyl nitrates, nitryl chloride (ClNO₂), dinitrogen pentoxide (N₂O₅)) or were not measured during FIREX-AQ (e.g., higher oxidized alkyl nitrates, nitrate (NO₃), non-acyl peroxynitrates, coarse-mode aerosol nitrate). The aircraft instrument intercomparisons demonstrate the following points: (1) NO measurements by CL and LIF agreed well within instrument uncertainties but with potentially reduced time response for the CL instrument; (2) NO₂ measurements by LIF and CES agreed well within instrument uncertainties, but CL NO₂ was on average 10 % higher; (3) CES and CIMS HONO measurements were highly correlated in each fire plume transect, but the correlation slope of CES vs. CIMS for all 1 Hz data during FIREX-AQ was 1.8, which we attribute to a reduction in the CIMS sensitivity to HONO in high-temperature environments; (4) NO_y budget closure was demonstrated for all flights within the combined instrument uncertainties of 25 %. However, we used a fluid dynamic flow model to estimate that average pNO₃ sampling fraction through the NO_y inlet in smoke was variable from one flight to another and ranged between 0.36 and 0.99, meaning that approximately 0 %–24 % on average of the total measured NO_y in smoke may have been unaccounted for and may be due to unmeasured species such as organic nitrates; (5) CO measurements by ICOS and TDLAS agreed well within combined instrument uncertainties, but with a systematic offset that averaged 2.87 ppbv; and (6) integrating smoke plumes followed by fitting the integrated values of each plume improved the correlation between independent measurements.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Bourgeois, Ilann0000-0002-2875-1258
Peischl, Jeff0000-0002-9320-7101
Neuman, J. Andrew0000-0002-3986-1727
Brown, Steven S.0000-0001-7477-9078
Allen, Hannah M.0000-0002-4218-5133
Campuzano-Jost, Pedro0000-0003-3930-010X
Coggon, Matthew M.0000-0002-5763-1925
DiGangi, Joshua P.0000-0002-6764-8624
Diskin, Glenn S.0000-0002-3617-0269
Gilman, Jessica B.0000-0002-7899-9948
Gkatzelis, Georgios I.0000-0002-4608-3695
Guo, Hongyu0000-0003-0487-3610
Halliday, Hannah A.0000-0001-9499-9836
Hanisco, Thomas F.0000-0001-9434-8507
Holmes, Christopher D.0000-0002-2727-0954
Huey, L. Gregory0000-0002-0518-7690
Jimenez, Jose L.0000-0001-6203-1847
Lindaas, Jakob0000-0003-1872-3162
Moore, Richard H.0000-0003-2911-4469
Nault, Benjamin A.0000-0001-9464-4787
Nowak, John B.0000-0002-5697-9807
Rickly, Pamela S.0000-0002-8459-869X
Robinson, Michael A.0000-0003-0977-9148
St. Clair, Jason M.0000-0002-9367-5749
Vasquez, Krystal T.0000-0003-4540-4212
Veres, Patrick R.0000-0001-7539-353X
Warneke, Carsten0000-0003-3811-8496
Wennberg, Paul O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Washenfelder, Rebecca A.0000-0002-8106-3702
Womack, Caroline C.0000-0002-7101-9054
Xu, Lu0000-0002-0021-9876
Zarzana, Kyle J.0000-0003-1581-6419
Ryerson, Thomas B.0000-0003-2800-7581
Alternate Title:Comparison of airborne measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQ
Additional Information:We would like to thank the NOAA/NASA FIREX-AQ science and aircraft operation teams. We acknowledge Armin Whistaler, Felix Piel, and Laura Tomsche for providing the NH3 measurements from FIREX-AQ. We thank Ann Middlebrook for helpful discussion regarding pNO3 sampling in the NOy inlet and AMS performance. This research has been supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (grant nos. NA17OAR4320101, NA16OAR4310100, and NA17OAR4310004) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (grant nos. 80NSSC18K0660 and 80NSSC18K0630).
Group:Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)NA17OAR4320101
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)NA16OAR4310100
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)NA17OAR4310004
Issue or Number:16
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220906-252512000
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:116713
Deposited By: Donna Wrublewski
Deposited On:03 Dec 2022 22:12
Last Modified:04 Dec 2022 21:52

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