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Asteroid Measurements at Millimeter Wavelengths with the South Pole Telescope

Chichura, P. M. and Foster, A. and Patel, C. and Ossa-Jaen, N. and Ade, P. A. R. and Ahmed, Z. and Anderson, A. J. and Archipley, M. and Austermann, J. E. and Avva, J. S. and Balkenhol, L. and Barry, P. S. and Thakur, R. Basu and Beall, J. A. and Benabed, K. and Bender, A. N. and Benson, B. A. and Bianchini, F. and Bleem, L. E. and Bouchet, F. R. and Bryant, L. and Byrum, K. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Carter, F. W. and Cecil, T. W. and Chang, C. L. and Chaubal, P. and Chen, G. and Chiang, H. C. and Cho, H.-M. and Chou, T-L. and Citron, R. and Cliche, J.-F. and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and Cukierman, A. and Daley, C. M. and Denison, E. V. and Dibert, K. and Ding, J. and Dobbs, M. A. and Dutcher, D. and Everett, W. and Feng, C. and Ferguson, K. R. and Fu, J. and Galli, S. and Gallicchio, J. and Gambrel, A. E. and Gardner, R. W. and George, E. M. and Goeckner-Wald, N. and Gualtieri, R. and Guns, S. and Gupta, N. and Guyser, R. and Haan, T. de and Halverson, N. W. and Harke-Hosemann, A. H. and Harrington, N. L. and Henning, J. W. and Hilton, G. C. and Hivon, E. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hood, J. C. and Howe, D. and Hrubes, J. D. and Huang, N. and Hubmayr, J. and Irwin, K. D. and Jeong, O. B. and Jonas, M. and Jones, A. and Khaire, T. S. and Knox, L. and Kofman, A. M. and Korman, M. and Kubik, D. L. and Kuhlmann, S. and Kuo, C.-L. and Lee, A. T. and Leitch, E. M. and Li, D. and Lowitz, A. and Lu, C. and Marrone, D. P. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Michalik, D. and Millea, M. and Mocanu, L. M. and Montgomery, J. and Moran, C. Corbett and Nadolski, A. and Natoli, T. and Nguyen, H. and Nibarger, J. P. and Noble, G. and Novosad, V. and Omori, Y. and Padin, S. and Pan, Z. and Paschos, P. and Patil, S. and Pearson, J. and Phadke, K. A. and Posada, C. M. and Prabhu, K. and Pryke, C. and Quan, W. and Rahlin, A. and Reichardt, C. L. and Riebel, D. and Riedel, B. and Rouble, M. and Ruhl, J. E. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Schiappucci, E. and Shirokoff, E. and Sievers, C. and Smecher, G. and Sobrin, J. A. and Springmann, A. and Stark, A. A. and Stephen, J. and Story, K. T. and Suzuki, A. and Tandoi, C. and Thompson, K. L. and Thorne, B. and Tucker, C. and Umilta, C. and Vale, L. R. and Veach, T. and Vieira, J. D. and Wang, G. and Whitehorn, N. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yefremenko, V. and Yoon, K. W. and Young, M. R. (2022) Asteroid Measurements at Millimeter Wavelengths with the South Pole Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 936 (2). p. 173. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac89ec.

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We present the first measurements of asteroids in millimeter wavelength data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), which is used primarily to study the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We analyze maps of two ∼270 deg² sky regions near the ecliptic plane, each observed with the SPTpol camera ∼100 times over 1 month. We subtract the mean of all maps of a given field, removing static sky signal, and then average the mean-subtracted maps at known asteroid locations. We detect three asteroids -- (324) Bamberga, (13) Egeria, and (22) Kalliope -- with signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of 11.2, 10.4, and 6.1, respectively, at 2.0 mm (150 GHz); we also detect (324) Bamberga with an S/N of 4.1 at 3.2 mm (95 GHz). We place constraints on these asteroids' effective emissivities, brightness temperatures, and light-curve modulation amplitude. Our flux density measurements of (324) Bamberga and (13) Egeria roughly agree with predictions, while our measurements of (22) Kalliope suggest lower flux, corresponding to effective emissivities of 0.64 ± 0.11 at 2.0 and < 0.47 at 3.2 mm. We predict the asteroids detectable in other SPT data sets and find good agreement with detections of (772) Tanete and (1093) Freda in recent data from the SPT-3G camera, which has ∼10× the mapping speed of SPTpol. This work is the first focused analysis of asteroids in data from CMB surveys, and it demonstrates we can repurpose historic and future data sets for asteroid studies. Future SPT measurements can help constrain the distribution of surface properties over a larger asteroid population.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Chichura, P. M.0000-0002-5397-9035
Foster, A.0000-0002-7145-1824
Archipley, M.0000-0002-0517-9842
Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Bianchini, F.0000-0003-4847-3483
Bleem, L. E.0000-0001-7665-5079
Bouchet, F. R.0000-0002-8051-2924
Cliche, J.-F.0000-0001-6509-8430
Crawford, T. M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Dobbs, M. A.0000-0001-7166-6422
Everett, W.0000-0002-5370-6651
Guns, S.0000-0001-7143-2853
Hivon, E.0000-0003-1880-2733
Holder, G. P.0000-0002-0463-6394
Millea, M.0000-0001-7317-0551
Moran, C. Corbett0000-0003-2088-7465
Patil, S.0000-0001-5871-7520
Phadke, K. A.0000-0001-7946-557X
Posada, C. M.0000-0001-8810-096X
Reichardt, C. L.0000-0003-2226-9169
Riedel, B.0000-0002-9524-8943
Smecher, G.0000-0002-5560-187X
Sobrin, J. A.0000-0001-6155-5315
Springmann, A.0000-0001-6401-0126
Whitehorn, N.0000-0002-3157-0407
Wu, W. L. K.0000-0001-5411-6920
Additional Information:This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00001.CAL. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. This publication also makes use of data products from NEOWISE, which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M.A. and J.V. acknowledge support from the Center for AstroPhysical Surveys at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in Urbana, IL. J.V. acknowledges support from the Sloan Foundation. The authors thank Jeff McMahon 55 for support in manuscript preparation through the Science Writing Practicum taught as part of U. Chicago's "Data Science in Energy and Environmental Research" NRT training program, NSF grant #DGE-1735359.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Science FoundationOPP-1852617
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220922-931611600.14
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117116
Deposited By: Melissa Ray
Deposited On:28 Sep 2022 21:36
Last Modified:28 Sep 2022 21:36

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