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PHANGS: constraining star formation time-scales using the spatial correlations of star clusters and giant molecular clouds

Turner, Jordan A. and Dale, Daniel A. and Lilly, James and Boquien, Médéric and Deger, Sinan and Lee, Janice C. and Whitmore, Bradley C. and Anand, Gagandeep S. and Benincasa, Samantha M. and Bigiel, Frank and Blanc, Guillermo A. and Chevance, Mélanie and Emsellem, Eric and Faesi, Christopher M. and Glover, Simon C. O. and Grasha, Kathryn and Hughes, Annie and Klessen, Ralf S. and Kreckel, Kathryn and Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik and Leroy, Adam K. and Pan, Hsi-An and Rosolowsky, Erik and Schruba, Andreas and Williams, Thomas G. (2022) PHANGS: constraining star formation time-scales using the spatial correlations of star clusters and giant molecular clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 516 (3). pp. 4612-4626. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2559. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20221003-756400000.30

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Abstract

In the hierarchical view of star formation, giant molecular clouds (GMCs) undergo fragmentation to form small-scale structures made up of stars and star clusters. Here we study the connection between young star clusters and cold gas across a range of extragalactic environments by combining the high resolution (1") PHANGS–ALMA catalogue of GMCs with the star cluster catalogues from PHANGS–HST. The star clusters are spatially matched with the GMCs across a sample of 11 nearby star-forming galaxies with a range of galactic environments (centres, bars, spiral arms, etc.). We find that after 4 − 6 Myr the star clusters are no longer associated with any gas clouds. Additionally, we measure the autocorrelation of the star clusters and GMCs as well as their cross-correlation to quantify the fractal nature of hierarchical star formation. Young (≤10 Myr) star clusters are more strongly autocorrelated on kpc and smaller spatial scales than the >10 Myr stellar populations, indicating that the hierarchical structure dissolves over time.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac2559DOIArticle
https://doi.org/10.17909/t9-r08f-dq31DOIData: stellar cluster catalogue
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Turner, Jordan A.0000-0003-2261-5746
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Deger, Sinan0000-0003-1943-723X
Lee, Janice C.0000-0002-2278-9407
Whitmore, Bradley C.0000-0002-3784-7032
Anand, Gagandeep S.0000-0002-5259-2314
Benincasa, Samantha M.0000-0003-4826-9079
Bigiel, Frank0000-0003-0166-9745
Blanc, Guillermo A.0000-0003-4218-3944
Chevance, Mélanie0000-0002-5635-5180
Emsellem, Eric0000-0002-6155-7166
Faesi, Christopher M.0000-0001-5310-467X
Glover, Simon C. O.0000-0001-6708-1317
Grasha, Kathryn0000-0002-3247-5321
Hughes, Annie0000-0002-9181-1161
Klessen, Ralf S.0000-0002-0560-3172
Kreckel, Kathryn0000-0001-6551-3091
Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik0000-0002-8804-0212
Leroy, Adam K.0000-0002-2545-1700
Pan, Hsi-An0000-0002-1370-6964
Rosolowsky, Erik0000-0002-5204-2259
Williams, Thomas G.0000-0002-0012-2142
Additional Information:We thank the referee for the helpful recommendations. This work has been carried out as part of the PHANGS collaboration. KG is supported by the Australian Research Council through the Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA) Fellowship DE220100766 funded by the Australian Government. KG is supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. TGW acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 694343). JMDK and MC gratefully acknowledge funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4801/1-1) and the DFG Sachbeihilfe (grant number KR4801/2-1), as well as from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme via the ERC Starting Grant MUSTANG (grant agreement no. 714907). FB would like to acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 726384/Empire). MC gratefully acknowledges funding from the DFG through an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number CH2137/1-1). This research is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 15654. HAP acknowledges support by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under grant 110-2112-M-032-020-MY3. MB gratefully acknowledges support by the ANID BASAL project FB210003 and from the FONDECYT regular grant 1211000. SCOG and RSK acknowledge financial support from DFG via the Collaborative Research Center ‘The Milky Way System’ (SFB 881, funding ID 138713538, subprojects A1, B1, B2, B8), from the Heidelberg Cluster of Excellence ‘STRUCTURES’ (EXC 2181 - 390900948), and from the European Research Council in the ERC Synergy Grant ‘ECOGAL’ (project ID 855130). This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00956.S and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00886.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The Digitized Sky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under U.S. Government grant NAG W-2166. The images of these surveys are based on photographic data obtained using the Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Palomar Mountain and the UK Schmidt Telescope. The plates were processed into the present compressed digital form with the permission of these institutions. Based on observations and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. The GMC catalogue analysed here is published in Rosolowsky et al. (2021) and Hughes et al. (in preparation). The stellar cluster catalogue is from Lee et al. (2022) and is available at the PHANGS homepage at Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) with doi: 10.17909/t9-r08f-dq31.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Australian Research CouncilDE220100766
European Research Council (ERC)CE170100013
European Research Council (ERC)694343
European Research Council (ERC)714907
European Research Council (ERC)726384/Empire
European Research Council (ERC)855130
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)KR4801/1-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)KR4801/2-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)CH2137/1-1
NASANAS 5-26555
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
NASANAG W-2166
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)110-2112-M-032-020-MY3
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1211000
Issue or Number:3
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stac2559
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221003-756400000.30
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20221003-756400000.30
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117219
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:12 Oct 2022 19:30
Last Modified:12 Oct 2022 22:16

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