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pterodactyls: A Tool to Uniformly Search and Vet for Young Transiting Planets in TESS Primary Mission Photometry

Fernandes, Rachel B. and Mulders, Gijs D. and Pascucci, Ilaria and Bergsten, Galen J. and Koskinen, Tommi T. and Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K. and Pearson, Kyle A. and Giacalone, Steven and Zink, Jon K. and Ciardi, David R. and O’Brien, Patrick (2022) pterodactyls: A Tool to Uniformly Search and Vet for Young Transiting Planets in TESS Primary Mission Photometry. Astronomical Journal, 164 (3). Art. No. 78. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac7b29.

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Kepler’s short-period exoplanet population has revealed evolutionary features such as the Radius Valley and the Hot Neptune desert that are likely sculpted by atmospheric loss over time. These findings suggest that the primordial planet population is different from the Gyr-old Kepler population, and motivates exoplanet searches around young stars. Here, we present pterodactyls, a data reduction pipeline specifically built to address the challenges in discovering exoplanets around young stars and to work with TESS Primary Mission 30-minute cadence photometry, since most young stars were not preselected TESS two-minute cadence targets. pterodactyls builds on publicly available and tested tools in order to extract, detrend, search, and vet transiting young planet candidates. We search five clusters with known transiting planets: the Tucana–Horologium Association, IC 2602, Upper Centaurus Lupus, Ursa Major, and Pisces–Eridani. We show that pterodactyls recovers seven out of the eight confirmed planets and one out of the two planet candidates, most of which were initially detected in two-minute cadence data. For these clusters, we conduct injection-recovery tests to characterize our detection efficiency, and compute an intrinsic planet occurrence rate of 49% ± 20% for sub-Neptunes and Neptunes (1.8–6 R⊕) within 12.5 days, which is higher than Kepler’s Gyr-old occurrence rates of 6.8% ± 0.3%. This potentially implies that these planets have shrunk with time due to atmospheric mass loss. However, a proper assessment of the occurrence of transiting young planets will require a larger sample unbiased to planets already detected. As such, pterodactyls will be used in future work to search and vet for planet candidates in nearby clusters and moving groups.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Fernandes, Rachel B.0000-0002-3853-7327
Mulders, Gijs D.0000-0002-1078-9493
Pascucci, Ilaria0000-0001-7962-1683
Bergsten, Galen J.0000-0003-4500-8850
Koskinen, Tommi T.0000-0003-3071-8358
Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.0000-0003-3702-0382
Pearson, Kyle A.0000-0002-5785-9073
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Zink, Jon K.0000-0003-1848-2063
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
O’Brien, Patrick0000-0002-3212-7802
Additional Information:R.B.F. would like to thank the following individuals for their expertize, assistance and, invaluable insights throughout the testing of pterodactyls: Adina D. Feinstein and Benjamin T. Montet (eleanor), Michael Hippke (Wōtan and TLS), Robert T. Zellem (EXOTIC), Christina Hedges (vetting, centroid test), and the Scaling K2 team, i.e., Jessie L. Christiansen, Sakhee Bhure, and Britt Duffy Adkins. G.D.M. acknowledges support from ANID—Millennium Science Initiative—ICN12_009. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under agreement No. NNX15AD94G for the program Earths in Other Solar Systems, under agreement No. 80NSSC21K0593 for the program "Alien Earths," and grant No. 80NSSC20K0446 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP). The results reported herein benefited from collaborations and/or information exchange within NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) research coordination network sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This publication makes use of data products from Exoplanet Watch, a citizen science project managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on behalf of NASA's Universe of Learning. This work is supported by NASA under award number NNX16AC65A to the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221011-459058000.28
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117336
Deposited By: Donna Wrublewski
Deposited On:14 Oct 2022 14:44
Last Modified:14 Oct 2022 14:44

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