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Extending the spectrum of fully integrated photonics to submicrometre wavelengths

Tran, Minh A. and Zhang, Chong and Morin, Theodore J. and Chang, Lin and Barik, Sabyasachi and Yuan, Zhiquan and Lee, Woonghee and Kim, Glenn and Malik, Aditya and Zhang, Zeyu and Guo, Joel and Wang, Heming and Shen, Boqiang and Wu, Lue and Vahala, Kerry J. and Bowers, John E. and Park, Hyundai and Komljenovic, Tin (2022) Extending the spectrum of fully integrated photonics to submicrometre wavelengths. Nature, 610 (7930). pp. 54-60. ISSN 0028-0836. PMCID PMC9534754. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05119-9.

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Integrated photonics has profoundly affected a wide range of technologies underpinning modern society. The ability to fabricate a complete optical system on a chip offers unrivalled scalability, weight, cost and power efficiency. Over the last decade, the progression from pure III–V materials platforms to silicon photonics has significantly broadened the scope of integrated photonics, by combining integrated lasers with the high-volume, advanced fabrication capabilities of the commercial electronics industry. Yet, despite remarkable manufacturing advantages, reliance on silicon-based waveguides currently limits the spectral window available to photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Here, we present a new generation of integrated photonics by directly uniting III–V materials with silicon nitride waveguides on Si wafers. Using this technology, we present a fully integrated PIC at photon energies greater than the bandgap of silicon, demonstrating essential photonic building blocks, including lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, modulators and passives, all operating at submicrometre wavelengths. Using this platform, we achieve unprecedented coherence and tunability in an integrated laser at short wavelength. Furthermore, by making use of this higher photon energy, we demonstrate superb high-temperature performance and kHz-level fundamental linewidths at elevated temperatures. Given the many potential applications at short wavelengths, the success of this integration strategy unlocks a broad range of new integrated photonics applications.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Tran, Minh A.0000-0002-2195-6381
Zhang, Chong0000-0001-8536-7634
Chang, Lin0000-0001-5311-3349
Zhang, Zeyu0000-0002-7157-6272
Guo, Joel0000-0003-0203-5170
Wang, Heming0000-0003-3861-0624
Shen, Boqiang0000-0003-0697-508X
Wu, Lue0000-0002-7503-7057
Vahala, Kerry J.0000-0003-1783-1380
Bowers, John E.0000-0003-4270-8296
Additional Information:We thank B. Dong and D. Kinghorn for assistance with measurements, S. Palmer for fruitful discussion, Z. Zhou for format modifications and L. McKinney, B. Long and Y. Chen for graphic sketches. We also thank L. Coldren for discussion of high temperature laser performance, as well as D. Weld and J. Wang for discussion of atomic physics applications. A portion of this work was performed in the UCSB Nanofabrication Facility, an open access laboratory. Part of this work and material (related to UCSB and Caltech) is based on work supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under contract no. HR001-20-2-0044. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Data availability. The data presented in this paper’s figures are available on Code availability. The codes that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)HR001-20-2-0044
Issue or Number:7930
PubMed Central ID:PMC9534754
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221013-48885100.16
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117405
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:18 Oct 2022 22:44
Last Modified:18 Oct 2022 22:44

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