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Establishing Dust Rings and Forming Planets within Them

Lee, Eve J. and Fuentes, J. R. and Hopkins, Philip F. (2022) Establishing Dust Rings and Forming Planets within Them. Astrophysical Journal, 937 (2). Art. No. 95. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac8cfe.

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Radio images of protoplanetary disks demonstrate that dust grains tend to organize themselves into rings. These rings may be a consequence of dust trapping within gas pressure maxima, wherein the local high dust-to-gas ratio is expected to trigger the formation of planetesimals and eventually planets. We revisit the behavior of dust near gas pressure perturbations enforced by a planet in two-dimensional, shearing-box simulations. While dust grains collect into generally long-lived rings, particles with a small Stokes parameter τₛ < 0.1 tend to advect out of the ring within a few drift timescales. Scaled to the properties of ALMA disks, we find that rings composed of larger particles (τₛ ≥ 0.1) can nucleate a dust clump massive enough to trigger pebble accretion, which proceeds to ingest the entire dust ring well within ∼1 Myr. To ensure the survival of the dust rings, we favor a nonplanetary origin and typical grain size τₛ ≲ 0.05–0.1. Planet-driven rings may still be possible but if so we would expect the orbital distance of the dust rings to be larger for older systems.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ItemDiscussion Paper
Lee, Eve J.0000-0002-1228-9820
Fuentes, J. R.0000-0003-2124-9764
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Additional Information:We thank the anonymous referee for providing a careful report that helped to improve the manuscript. We also thank Ruobing Dong, Jonathan Squires, and Andrew Youdin for helpful discussions and Ge (Wendy) Chen for providing preliminary analyses. E.J.L. gratefully acknowledges support by the Sherman Fairchild Fellowship at Caltech, by NSERC, by le Fonds de recherche du Québec—Nature et technologies (FRQNT), by McGill Space Institute, and by the William Dawson Scholarship from McGill University. J.R.F. acknowledges support by a Mitacs Research Training Award, a McGill Space Institute (MSI) Fellowship, and thanks the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Colorado Boulder, for hospitality. Support for PFH was provided by NSF Research Grants 1911233, 20009234, 2108318, NSF CAREER grant 1455342, NASA grants 80NSSC18K0562, HST-AR-15800. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Calcul Québec ( and Compute Canada (
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FRQNT)FRQ-NT NC-298962
McGill Space InstituteUNSPECIFIED
McGill UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221017-12657600.19
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ID Code:117458
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:18 Oct 2022 21:59
Last Modified:18 Oct 2022 21:59

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