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SN 2019zrk, a bright SN 2009ip analog with a precursor

Fransson, Claes and Sollerman, Jesper and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Yang, Sheng and Schulze, Steve and Barbarino, Cristina and Kool, Erik C. and Ofek, Eran O. and Crellin-Quick, Arien and De, Kishalay and Drake, Andrew J. and Fremling, Christoffer and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. (2022) SN 2019zrk, a bright SN 2009ip analog with a precursor. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666 . Art. No. A79. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243452.

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We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2019zrk (also known as ZTF 20aacbyec). The SN shows a > 100 day precursor, with a slow rise, followed by a rapid rise to M ≈ −19.2 in the r and g bands. The post-peak light-curve decline is well fit with an exponential decay with a timescale of ∼39 days, but it shows prominent undulations, with an amplitude of ∼1 mag. Both the light curve and spectra are dominated by an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), probably from previous mass ejections. The spectra evolve from a scattering-dominated Type IIn spectrum to a spectrum with strong P-Cygni absorptions. The expansion velocity is high, ∼16 000 km s⁻¹, even in the last spectra. The last spectrum ∼110 days after the main eruption reveals no evidence for advanced nucleosynthesis. From analysis of the spectra and light curves, we estimate the mass-loss rate to be ∼4 × 10⁻² M_⊙ yr⁻¹ for a CSM velocity of 100 km s⁻¹, and a CSM mass of 1 M_⊙. We find strong similarities for both the precursor, general light curve, and spectral evolution with SN 2009ip and similar SNe, although SN 2019zrk displays a brighter peak magnitude. Different scenarios for the nature of the 09ip-class of SNe, based on pulsational pair instability eruptions, wave heating, and mergers, are discussed.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Fransson, Claes0000-0001-8532-3594
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Strotjohann, Nora L.0000-0002-4667-6730
Yang, Sheng0000-0002-2898-6532
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Barbarino, Cristina0000-0002-3821-6144
Kool, Erik C.0000-0002-7252-3877
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Crellin-Quick, Arien0000-0002-7183-0410
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Additional Information:We are grateful to Jacob Nordin and the referee for comments and careful readings of the paper. The research of C.F. is supported by the Swedish Research Council. NLS is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) via the Walter Benjamin program – 461903330. S.S. and E.C.K. acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment, funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, project number 2016-06012, as well as support from the Wenner-Gren Foundations. We thank Jakob Nordin for comments on the manuscript. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen- Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. The Oskar Klein Centre was funded by the Swedish Research Council. Partially based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku and the University of Oslo, representing Denmark, Finland and Norway, the University of Iceland and Stockholm University at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Some of the data presented here were obtained with ALFOSC. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. The SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171.
Group:Astronomy Department, Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)461903330
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Wenner-Gren FoundationsUNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221024-125317900.14
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117545
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:28 Oct 2022 23:04
Last Modified:01 Nov 2022 17:26

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