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The stellar populations of quiescent ultra-diffuse galaxies from optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution fitting

Buzzo, Maria Luisa and Forbes, Duncan A. and Brodie, Jean P. and Romanowsky, Aaron J. and Cluver, Michelle E. and Jarrett, Thomas H. and Laine, Seppo and Couch, Warrick J. and Gannon, Jonah S. and Ferré-Mateu, Anna and Okabe, Nobuhiro (2022) The stellar populations of quiescent ultra-diffuse galaxies from optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution fitting. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 517 (2). pp. 2231-2250. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2442.

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We use spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to place constraints on the stellar population properties of 29 quiescent ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) across different environments. We use the fully Bayesian routine PROSPECTOR coupled with archival data in the optical, near, and mid-infrared from Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer under the assumption of an exponentially declining star formation history. We recover the stellar mass, age, metallicity, dust content, star formation time scales, and photometric redshifts (photo-zs) of the UDGs studied. Using the mid-infrared data, we probe the existence of dust in UDGs. Although its presence cannot be confirmed, we find that the inclusion of small amounts of dust in the models brings the stellar populations closer to those reported with spectroscopy. Additionally, we fit the redshifts of all galaxies. We find a high accuracy in recovering photo-zs compared to spectroscopy, allowing us to provide new photo-z estimates for three field UDGs with unknown distances. We find evidence of a stellar population dependence on the environment, with quiescent field UDGs being systematically younger than their cluster counterparts. Lastly, we find that all UDGs lie below the mass–metallicity relation for normal dwarf galaxies. Particularly, the globular cluster (GC)-poor UDGs are consistently more metal-rich than GC-rich ones, suggesting that GC-poor UDGs may be puffed-up dwarfs, while most GC-rich UDGs are better explained by a failed galaxy scenario. As a byproduct, we show that two galaxies in our sample, NGC 1052-DF2 and NGC 1052-DF4, share equivalent stellar population properties, with ages consistent with 8 Gyr. This finding supports formation scenarios where the galaxies were formed together.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Buzzo, Maria Luisa0000-0003-3153-8543
Forbes, Duncan A.0000-0001-5590-5518
Brodie, Jean P.0000-0002-9658-8763
Romanowsky, Aaron J.0000-0003-2473-0369
Cluver, Michelle E.0000-0002-9871-6490
Jarrett, Thomas H.0000-0002-4939-734X
Laine, Seppo0000-0003-1250-8314
Couch, Warrick J.0000-0001-5005-3125
Gannon, Jonah S.0000-0002-2936-7805
Ferré-Mateu, Anna0000-0002-6411-220X
Okabe, Nobuhiro0000-0003-2898-0728
Additional Information:We thank the referee for all comments/suggestions that improved a lot the manuscript. We thank Pieter van Dokkum for providing GMOS data for DF44 and DFX1. We thank Ben Johnson for all the help with dealing with PROSPECTOR’s priors and Viraj Pandya for insights into how to best interpret our PROSPECTOR results in face of such faint sources as UDGs. We thank Joel Leja and Yimeng Tang for discussion about PROSPECTOR systematics. We acknowledge Song Huang for providing Subaru/Hyper Suprime Cam data for the two Perseus cluster UDGs studied in this work. We acknowledge David Martínez-Delgado for providing Subaru optical imaging of DGSAT I (see also Martínez-Delgado et al. 2016). We are grateful to Stephen Gwyn for help with the astrometric and photometric calibration of the CFHT data of M-161-1. This research was supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. AJR was supported as a Research Corporation for Science Advancement Cottrell Scholar. AFM acknowledges support from the Severo Ochoa Excellence scheme (CEX2019-000920-S). This paper is based in part on observations made with and archival data obtained with the SpitzerSpace Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This paper is based in part on data from the Hyper SuprimeCam Legacy Archive (HSCLA), which is operated by the Subaru Telescope. The original data in HSCLA were collected at the Subaru Telescope and retrieved from the HSC data archive system, which is operated by Subaru Telescope and Astronomy Data Center at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The Legacy Surveys consist of three individual and complementary projects: the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS; Proposal ID #2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey), the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; NOAO Proposal ID #2015A-0801; PIs: Zhou Xu and Xiaohui Fan), and the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; Proposal ID #2016A-0453; PI: Arjun Dey). DECaLS, BASS, and MzLS together include data obtained, respectively, at the Blanco Telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, NSF’s NOIRLab; the Bok telescope, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; and the Mayall telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, NOIRLab. This paper is in part based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and SECYT (Argentina). This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. DATA AVAILABILITY. DECaLS data are available via the Legacy survey portal. WISE data are available via the WISE archive. GMOS data are available via the Gemini portal. CFHT data are available at the CFHT data base. Spitzer-IRAC data are available via the Spitzer archive. HSC data are proprietary and can be made available upon request.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Australian Research CouncilCE170100013
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000920-S
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
University of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: formation, galaxies: fundamental parameters, galaxies: stellar content
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221031-575177800.22
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117660
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:09 Nov 2022 20:08
Last Modified:11 Nov 2022 18:44

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