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The hunt for extraterrestrial high-energy neutrino counterparts

Liodakis, I. and Hovatta, T. and Pavlidou, V. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Blandford, R. D. and Kiehlmann, S. and Lindfors, E. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Pearson, T. J. and Petropoulou, M. (2022) The hunt for extraterrestrial high-energy neutrino counterparts. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666 . AArt. No. 36. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244551.

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The origin of Petaelectronvolt (PeV) astrophysical neutrinos is fundamental to our understanding of the high-energy Universe. Apart from the technical challenges of operating detectors deep below ice, oceans, and lakes, the phenomenological challenges are even greater than those of gravitational waves; the sources are unknown, hard to predict, and we lack clear signatures. Neutrino astronomy therefore represents the greatest challenge faced by the astronomy and physics communities thus far. The possible neutrino sources range from accretion disks and tidal disruption events, to relativistic jets and galaxy clusters with blazar TXS 0506+056 the most compelling association thus far. Since that association, immense effort has been put into proving or disproving that jets are indeed neutrino emitters, but to no avail. By generating simulated neutrino counterpart samples, we explore the potential of detecting a significant correlation of neutrinos with jets from active galactic nuclei. We find that, given the existing challenges, even our best experiments could not have produced a > 3σ result. Larger programs over the next few years will be able to detect a significant correlation only if the brightest radio sources, rather than all jetted active galactic nuclei, are neutrino emitters. We discuss the necessary strategies required to steer future efforts into successful experiments.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Liodakis, I.0000-0001-9200-4006
Hovatta, T.0000-0002-2024-8199
Pavlidou, V.0000-0002-0870-1368
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Blandford, R. D.0000-0002-1854-5506
Kiehlmann, S.0000-0001-6314-9177
Lindfors, E.0000-0002-9155-6199
Max-Moerbeck, W.0000-0002-5491-5244
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Petropoulou, M.0000-0001-6640-0179
Additional Information:The authors thank Keith Grainge and the anonymous referee for comments and suggestions that helped improve this work. T.H. was supported by the Academy of Finland projects 317383, 320085, 322535, and 345899. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program (Richards et al. 2011), supported by private funding from the California Institute of Technology and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, and by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. E.L. was supported by Academy of Finland projects 317636 and 320045. The computer resources of the Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC) and the FGCI project (Finland) are acknowledged. S.K. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 771282. W.M. gratefully acknowledges support by the ANID BASAL projects ACE210002 and FB210003, and FONDECYT 11190853. V.P. acknowledges support by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (H.F.R.I.) under the “First Call for H.F.R.I. Research Projects to support Faculty members and Researchers and the procurement of high-cost research equipment grant” (Project 1552 CIRCE), and from the Foundation of Research and Technology – Hellas Synergy Grants Program through project MagMASim, jointly implemented by the Institute of Astrophysics and the Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland317383
Academy of Finland320085
Academy of Finland322535
Academy of Finland345899
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of Finland317636
Academy of Finland320045
European Research Council (ERC)771282
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)ACE210002
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)FB210003
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11190853
Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (HFRI)1552 CIRCE
Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas Synergy Grants ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221104-610921700.18
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117719
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:17 Nov 2022 20:10
Last Modified:17 Nov 2022 20:10

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