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Euclid: Searching for pair-instability supernovae with the Deep Survey

Moriya, T. J. and Inserra, C. and Tanaka, M. and Cappellaro, E. and Della Valle, M. and Hook, I. and Kotak, R. and Longo, G. and Mannucci, F. and Mattila, S. and Tao, C. and Altieri, B. and Amara, A. and Auricchio, N. and Bonino, D. and Branchini, E. and Brescia, M. and Brinchmann, J. and Camera, S. and Capobianco, V. and Carbone, C. and Carretero, J. and Castellano, M. and Cavuoti, S. and Cimatti, A. and Cledassou, R. and Congedo, G. and Conselice, C. J. and Conversi, L. and Copin, Y. and Corcione, L. and Courbin, F. and Cropper, M. and Da Silva, A. and Degaudenzi, H. and Douspis, M. and Dubath, F. and Duncan, C. A. J. and Dupac, X. and Dusini, S. and Ealet, A. and Farrens, S. and Ferriol, S. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Fumana, M. and Garilli, B. and Gillard, W. and Gillis, B. and Giocoli, C. and Grazian, A. and Grupp, F. and Haugan, S. V. H. and Holmes, W. and Hormuth, F. and Hornstrup, A. and Jahnke, K. and Kermiche, S. and Kiessling, A. and Kilbinger, M. and Kitching, T. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Ligori, S. and Lilje, P. B. and Lloro, I. and Maiorano, E. and Mansutti, O. and Marggraf, O. and Markovic, K. and Marulli, F. and Massey, R. and McCracken, H. J. and Melchior, M. and Meneghetti, M. and Meylan, G. and Moresco, M. and Moscardini, L. and Munari, E. and Niemi, S. M. and Padilla, C. and Paltani, S. and Pasian, F. and Pedersen, K. and Pettorino, V. and Poncet, M. and Popa, L. and Raison, F. and Rhodes, J. and Riccio, G. and Rossetti, E. and Saglia, R. and Sartoris, B. and Schneider, P. and Secroun, A. and Seidel, G. and Sirignano, C. and Sirri, G. and Stanco, L. and Tallada-Crespí, P. and Taylor, A. N. and Tereno, I. and Toledo-Moreo, R. and Torradeflot, F. and Wang, Y. and Zamorani, G. and Zoubian, J. and Andreon, S. and Scottez, V. and Morris, P. W. (2022) Euclid: Searching for pair-instability supernovae with the Deep Survey. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 666 . Art. No. A157. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243810.

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Pair-instability supernovae are theorized supernovae that have not yet been observationally confirmed. They are predicted to exist in low-metallicity environments. Because overall metallicity becomes lower at higher redshifts, deep near-infrared transient surveys probing high-redshift supernovae are suitable to discover pair-instability supernovae. The Euclid satellite, which is planned launch in 2023, has a near-infrared wide-field instrument that is suitable for a high-redshift supernova survey. The Euclid Deep Survey is planned to make regular observations of three Euclid Deep Fields (40 deg² in total) spanning Euclid’s six-year primary mission period. While the observations of the Euclid Deep Fields are not frequent, we show that the predicted long duration of pair-instability supernovae would allow us to search for high-redshift pair-instability supernovae with the Euclid Deep Survey. Based on the current observational plan of the Euclid mission, we conduct survey simulations in order to estimate the expected numbers of pair-instability supernova discoveries. We find that up to several hundred pair-instability supernovae at z ≲ 3.5 can be discovered within the Euclid Deep Survey. We also show that pair-instability supernova candidates can be efficiently identified by their duration and color, which can be determined with the current Euclid Deep Survey plan. We conclude that the Euclid mission can lead to the first confirmation of pair-instability supernovae if their event rates are as high as those predicted by recent theoretical studies. We also update the expected numbers of superluminous supernova discoveries in the Euclid Deep Survey based on the latest observational plan.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Moriya, T. J.0000-0003-1169-1954
Inserra, C.0000-0002-3968-4409
Tanaka, M.0000-0002-5011-5178
Cappellaro, E.0000-0001-5008-8619
Della Valle, M.0000-0003-3142-5020
Hook, I.0000-0002-2960-978X
Kotak, R.0000-0001-5455-3653
Longo, G.0000-0002-9182-8414
Mattila, S.0000-0001-7497-2994
Tao, C.0000-0001-8817-0589
Altieri, B.0000-0003-3936-0284
Auricchio, N.0000-0003-4444-8651
Bonino, D.0000-0002-3336-9977
Branchini, E.0000-0002-0808-6908
Brescia, M.0000-0001-9506-5680
Brinchmann, J.0000-0003-4359-8797
Camera, S.0000-0003-3399-3574
Capobianco, V.0000-0002-3309-7692
Carbone, C.0000-0003-0125-3563
Carretero, J.0000-0002-3130-0204
Castellano, M.0000-0001-9875-8263
Cavuoti, S.0000-0002-3787-4196
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Cledassou, R.0000-0002-8313-2230
Congedo, G.0000-0003-2508-0046
Conselice, C. J.0000-0003-1949-7638
Conversi, L.0000-0002-6710-8476
Copin, Y.0000-0002-5317-7518
Corcione, L.0000-0002-6497-5881
Courbin, F.0000-0003-0758-6510
Cropper, M.0000-0003-4571-9468
Dubath, F.0000-0002-6533-2810
Dusini, S.0000-0002-1128-0664
Farrens, S.0000-0002-9594-9387
Frailis, M.0000-0002-7400-2135
Franceschi, E.0000-0002-0585-6591
Garilli, B.0000-0001-7455-8750
Gillard, W.0000-0003-4744-9748
Gillis, B.0000-0002-4478-1270
Giocoli, C.0000-0002-9590-7961
Grupp, F.0000-0001-7300-9303
Jahnke, K.0000-0003-3804-2137
Kermiche, S.0000-0002-0302-5735
Kiessling, A.0000-0002-2590-1273
Kilbinger, M.0000-0001-9513-7138
Kitching, T.0000-0002-4061-4598
Kurki-Suonio, H.0000-0002-4618-3063
Ligori, S.0000-0003-4172-4606
Lilje, P. B.0000-0003-4324-7794
Lloro, I.0000-0001-5966-1434
Maiorano, E.0000-0003-2593-4355
Mansutti, O.0000-0001-5758-4658
Marggraf, O.0000-0001-7242-3852
Marulli, F.0000-0002-8850-0303
Massey, R.0000-0002-6085-3780
McCracken, H. J.0000-0002-9489-7765
Meneghetti, M.0000-0003-1225-7084
Moresco, M.0000-0002-7616-7136
Moscardini, L.0000-0002-3473-6716
Padilla, C.0000-0001-7951-0166
Paltani, S.0000-0002-8108-9179
Pettorino, V.0000-0002-4203-9320
Raison, F.0000-0002-7819-6918
Rhodes, J.0000-0002-4485-8549
Riccio, G.0000-0001-7020-1172
Saglia, R.0000-0003-0378-7032
Schneider, P.0000-0002-5094-2245
Secroun, A.0000-0003-0505-3710
Seidel, G.0000-0003-2907-353X
Tereno, I.0000-0002-4537-6218
Toledo-Moreo, R.0000-0002-2997-4859
Wang, Y.0000-0002-4749-2984
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Andreon, S.0000-0002-2041-8784
Morris, P. W.0000-0002-5186-4381
Additional Information:TJM thanks Mitsuru Kokubo for helpful discussions. TJM is supported by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JP18K13585, JP20H00174, JP21K13966, JP21H04997). This work was supported by JSPS Core-to-Core Program (JPJSCCA20210003). This research has made use of the SVO Filter Profile Service ( supported from the Spanish MINECO through grant AYA2017-84089. The Euclid Consortium acknowledges the European Space Agency and a number of agencies and institutes that have supported the development of Euclid, in particular the Academy of Finland, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, the Belgian Science Policy, the Canadian Euclid Consortium, the French Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, the Danish Space Research Institute, the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the Netherlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie, the Norwegian Space Agency, the Romanian Space Agency, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) at the Swiss Space Office (SSO), and the United Kingdom Space Agency. A complete and detailed list is available on the Euclid web site (
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13585
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H00174
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21K13966
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21H04997
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JPJSCCA20210003
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AyA2017-84089
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Euclid ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Danish Space Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Norwegian Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Romanian Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221109-552977300.11
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117809
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:23 Nov 2022 00:10
Last Modified:28 Nov 2022 17:18

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