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Continuum source catalog for the first APERTIF data release

Kutkin, A. M. and Oosterloo, T. A. and Morganti, R. and Adams, E. A. K. and Mancini, M. and Adebahr, B. and de Blok, W. J. G. and Dénes, H. and Hess, K. M. and van der Hulst, J. M. and Lucero, D. M. and Moss, V. A. and Berger, A. and van den Brink, R. and van Cappellen, W. A. and Connor, L. and Damstra, S. and Loose, G. M. and van Leeuwen, J. and Maan, Y. and Mika, Á. and Norden, M. J. and Offringa, A. R. and Oostrum, L. C. and van der Schuur, D. and Vohl, D. and Wijnholds, S. J. and Ziemke, J. (2022) Continuum source catalog for the first APERTIF data release. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 667 . Art. No. A39. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202244008. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20221121-712406200.19

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Abstract

The first data release from Apertif survey contains 3074 radio continuum images, covering a thousand square degrees of the sky. The observations were performed between August 2019 and July 2020. The continuum images were produced at a central frequency 1355 MHz, with a bandwidth of ~150 MHz and angular resolution of up to 10″. In this work, we introduce and apply a new method to obtain a primary beam model based on a machine-learning approach, namely, Gaussian process regression. The primary beam models obtained with this method have been published, along with the data products for the first Apertif data release. We applied the method to the continuum images, carried out a mosaicking process on their basis, and extracted the source catalog. The catalog contains 249672 radio sources, many of which have been detected for the first time at these frequencies. We cross-matched the coordinates with the NVSS, LOFAR/DR1/value-added, and LOFAR/DR2 catalogs – resulting in 44523, 22825, and 152824 common sources, respectively. The first sample provides a unique opportunity for detecting long-term transient sources, which have significantly changed their flux density over the past 25 yr. A combination of the second and the third samples provides valuable information on the spectral properties of the sources in addition to redshift estimates.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202244008DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kutkin, A. M.0000-0002-1123-7498
Oosterloo, T. A.0000-0002-0616-6971
Morganti, R.0000-0002-9482-6844
Adams, E. A. K.0000-0002-9798-5111
Mancini, M.0000-0002-3861-9234
Adebahr, B.0000-0002-5447-6878
de Blok, W. J. G.0000-0001-8957-4518
Dénes, H.0000-0002-9214-8613
Hess, K. M.0000-0001-9662-9089
van der Hulst, J. M.0000-0002-9316-763X
Lucero, D. M.0000-0002-9288-9331
Moss, V. A.0000-0002-3005-9738
van Cappellen, W. A.0000-0002-3390-2268
Connor, L.0000-0002-7587-6352
Loose, G. M.0000-0003-4721-747X
van Leeuwen, J.0000-0001-8503-6958
Maan, Y.0000-0002-0862-6062
Mika, Á.0000-0003-0666-2032
Offringa, A. R.0000-0002-5809-2783
Oostrum, L. C.0000-0001-8724-8372
van der Schuur, D.0000-0002-9142-1411
Vohl, D.0000-0003-1779-4532
Wijnholds, S. J.0000-0002-0463-3011
Additional Information:We thank the anonymous referee whose comments helped to improve the paper. This work makes use of data from the Apertif system installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope owned by ASTRON. ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, is an institute of the Dutch Science Organisation (De Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, NWO). Apertif was partly financed by the NWO Groot projects Apertif (175.010.2005.015) and Apropos (175.010.2009.012). This research made use of Python programming language with its standard and external libraries/packages including numpy (Harris et al. 2020), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), scikit-learn (Pedregosa et al. 2011), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), pandas (McKinney 2010) etc. This research made use of Astropy, (http://www.astropy.org) a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013, Astropy Collaboration 2018). The radio_beam and reproject python packages are used for manipulations with restoring beam and reprojecting/mosaicking of the images. This research has made use of “Aladin sky atlas” developed at CDS, Strasbourg Observatory, France (Bonnarel et al. 2000; Boch & Fernique 2014). E.A.K.A. is supported by the WISE research programme, which is financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) B.A. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation DFG, within the Collaborative Research Center SFB1491 “Cosmic Interacting Matters – From Source to Signal”. T.A.O. acknowledges funding from NWO via grant TOP1EW.14.105. K.M.H. acknowledges financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” awarded to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), from the coordination of the participation in SKA-SPAIN, funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MCIN). K.M.H. and J.M.vdH. acknowledge funding from the Europeaní Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007–2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No. 291531 (‘HIStoryNU’). L.C. and L.C.O. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007–2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No. 617199. J.vL. acknowledges funding from Vici research programme “ARGO” with project number 639.043.815, financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO). D.V. acknowledges support from the Netherlands eScience Center (NLeSC) under grant ASDI.15.406.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)175.010.2005.015
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)175.010.2009.012
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB1491
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)TOP1EW.14.105
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)291531
European Research Council (ERC)617199
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.815
Netherlands eScience CenterASDI.15.406
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202244008
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221121-712406200.19
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20221121-712406200.19
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:117954
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:02 Dec 2022 18:06
Last Modified:02 Dec 2022 18:06

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