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The HD 93963 A transiting system: A 1.04 d super-Earth and a 3.65 d sub-Neptune discovered by TESS and CHEOPS

Serrano, L. M. and Gandolfi, D. and Hoyer, S. and Brandeker, A. and Hooton, M. J. and Sousa, S. and Murgas, F. and Ciardi, D. R. and Howell, S. B. and Benz, W. and Billot, N. and Florén, H.-G. and Bekkelien, A. and Bonfanti, A. and Krenn, A. and Mustill, A. J. and Wilson, T. G. and Osborn, H. and Parviainen, H. and Heidari, N. and Pallé, E. and Fridlund, M. and Adibekyan, V. and Fossati, L. and Deleuil, M. and Knudstrup, E. and Collins, K. A. and Lam, K. W. F. and Grziwa, S. and Salmon, S. and Albrecht, S. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada-Escudé, G. and Bárczy, T. and Barrado y Navascues, D. and Barros, S. C. C. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Bieryla, A. and Bonfils, X. and Boyd, P. T. and Broeg, C. and Cabrera, J. and Charnoz, S. and Chazelas, B. and Christiansen, J. L. and Collier Cameron, A. and Cortés-Zuleta, P. and Csizmadia, Szilárd and Davies, M. B. and Deline, A. and Delrez, L. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Demory, B.-O. and Dunlavey, A. and Ehrenreich, D. and Erikson, A. and Fortier, A. and Fukui, A. and Garai, Z. and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M. and Hébrard, G. and Heng, Kevin and Huang, C. X. and Isaak, K. G. and Jenkins, J. M. and Kiss, L. L. and Laskar, J. and Latham, D. W. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lendl, M. and Levine, A. M. and Lovis, C. and Lund, M. B. and Magrin, D. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Narita, N. and Nascimbeni, V. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Pessanha, A. C. S. V. and Peter, G. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Queloz, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Ratti, F. and Rauer, H. and Ribas, I. and Ricker, G. and Rowden, P. and Santos, N. C. and Scandariato, G. and Seager, S. and Ségransan, D. and Simon, A. E. and Smith, A. M. S. and Steller, M. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Twicken, J. D. and Udry, S. and Ulmer, B. and Van Grootel, V. and Vanderspek, R. and Viotto, V. and Walton, N. (2022) The HD 93963 A transiting system: A 1.04 d super-Earth and a 3.65 d sub-Neptune discovered by TESS and CHEOPS. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 667 . Art. No. A1. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243093.

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We present the discovery of two small planets transiting HD 93963A (TOI-1797), a GOV star (M_* = 1.109 ± 0.043M_⊙, R_* = 1.043 ± 0.009 R_⊙) in a visual binary system. We combined TESS and CHEOPS space-borne photometry with MuSCAT 2 ground-based photometry, ‘Alopeke and PHARO high-resolution imaging, TRES and FIES reconnaissance spectroscopy, and SOPHIE radial velocity measurements. We validated and spectroscopically confirmed the outer transiting planet HD 93963 A c, a sub-Neptune with an orbital period of P_c ≈ 3.65 d that was reported to be a TESS object of interest (TOI) shortly after the release of Sector 22 data. HD 93963 A c has amass of M_c = 19.2 ± 4.1 M_⊕ and a radius of R_c = 3.228 ± 0.059 R_⊕, implying a mean density of ρ_c = 3.1 ± 0.7 g cm^(-3). The inner object, HD 93963 A b, is a validated 1.04 d ultra-short period (USP) transiting super-Earth that we discovered in the TESS light curve and that was not listed as a TOI, owing to the low significance of its signal (TESS signal-to-noise ratio ≈6.7, TESS + CHEOPS combined transit depth D_b = 141.5_(−8.3)^(+8.5) ppm). We intensively monitored the star with CHEOPS by performing nine transit observations to confirm the presence of the inner planet and validate the system. HD 93963 A b is the first small (R_b = 1.35 ± 0.042 R_⊕) USP planet discovered and validated by TESS and CHEOPS. Unlike planet c, HD 93963 Ab is not significantly detected in our radial velocities (M_b = 7.8 ± 3.2 M_⊕). The two planets are on either side of the radius valley, implying that they could have undergone completely different evolution processes. We also discovered a linear trend in our Doppler measurements, suggesting the possible presence of a long-period outer planet. With a V-band magnitude of 9.2, HD 93963 A is among the brightest stars known to host a USP planet, making it one of the most favourable targets for precise mass measurement via Doppler spectroscopy and an important laboratory to test formation, evolution, and migration models of planetary systems hosting ultra-short period planets.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Serrano, L. M.0000-0001-9211-3691
Gandolfi, D.0000-0001-8627-9628
Hoyer, S.0000-0003-3477-2466
Brandeker, A.0000-0002-7201-7536
Hooton, M. J.0000-0003-0030-332X
Sousa, S.0000-0001-9047-2965
Murgas, F.0000-0001-9087-1245
Ciardi, D. R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Howell, S. B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Benz, W.0000-0001-7896-6479
Florén, H.-G.0000-0001-6994-9159
Bekkelien, A.0000-0003-3778-3427
Bonfanti, A.0000-0002-1916-5935
Krenn, A.0000-0003-3615-4725
Mustill, A. J.0000-0002-2086-3642
Wilson, T. G.0000-0001-8749-1962
Osborn, H.0000-0002-4047-4724
Parviainen, H.0000-0001-5519-1391
Pallé, E.0000-0003-0987-1593
Fridlund, M.0000-0002-0855-8426
Adibekyan, V.0000-0002-0601-6199
Fossati, L.0000-0003-4426-9530
Deleuil, M.0000-0001-6036-0225
Knudstrup, E.0000-0001-7880-594X
Collins, K. A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Lam, K. W. F.0000-0002-9910-6088
Grziwa, S.0000-0003-3370-4058
Albrecht, S.0000-0002-5960-6803
Alibert, Y.0000-0002-4644-8818
Alonso, R.0000-0001-8462-8126
Anglada-Escudé, G.0000-0002-3645-5977
Barrado y Navascues, D.0000-0002-5971-9242
Barros, S. C. C.0000-0003-2434-3625
Baumjohann, W.0000-0001-6271-0110
Bieryla, A.0000-0001-6637-5401
Bonfils, X.0000-0001-9003-8894
Boyd, P. T.0000-0003-0442-4284
Cabrera, J.0000-0001-6653-5487
Charnoz, S.0000-0002-7442-491X
Christiansen, J. L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Collier Cameron, A.0000-0002-8863-7828
Cortés-Zuleta, P.0000-0002-6174-4666
Csizmadia, Szilárd0000-0001-6803-9698
Delrez, L.0000-0001-6108-4808
Demangeon, O. D. S.0000-0001-7918-0355
Demory, B.-O.0000-0002-9355-5165
Dunlavey, A.0000-0001-5843-1370
Ehrenreich, D.0000-0001-9704-5405
Fortier, A.0000-0001-8450-3374
Garai, Z.0000-0001-9483-2016
Gillon, M.0000-0003-1462-7739
Güdel, M.0000-0001-9818-0588
Hébrard, G.0000-0001-5450-7067
Heng, Kevin0000-0003-1907-5910
Huang, C. X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Jenkins, J. M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Kiss, L. L.0000-0002-3234-1374
Laskar, J.0000-0003-2634-789X
Latham, D. W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.0000-0002-5637-5253
Lendl, M.0000-0001-9699-1459
Lovis, C.0000-0001-7120-5837
Lund, M. B.0000-0003-2527-1598
Maxted, P. F. L.0000-0003-3794-1317
Narita, N.0000-0001-8511-2981
Nascimbeni, V.0000-0001-9770-1214
Ottensamer, R.0000-0001-5684-5836
Pagano, I.0000-0001-9573-4928
Piotto, G.0000-0002-9937-6387
Pollacco, D.0000-0001-9850-9697
Queloz, D.0000-0002-3012-0316
Rauer, H.0000-0002-6510-1828
Ribas, I.0000-0002-6689-0312
Ricker, G.0000-0003-2058-6662
Rowden, P.0000-0002-4829-7101
Santos, N. C.0000-0003-4422-2919
Scandariato, G.0000-0003-2029-0626
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Ségransan, D.0000-0003-2355-8034
Simon, A. E.0000-0001-9773-2600
Smith, A. M. S.0000-0002-2386-4341
Szabó, Gy. M.0000-0002-0606-7930
Twicken, J. D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Udry, S.0000-0001-7576-6236
Van Grootel, V.0000-0003-2144-4316
Vanderspek, R.0000-0001-6763-6562
Viotto, V.0000-0001-5700-9565
Walton, N.0000-0003-3983-8778
Additional Information:CHEOPS is an ESA mission in partnership with Switzerland with important contributions to the payload and the ground segment from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The CHEOPS Consortium would like to gratefully acknowledge the support received by all the agencies, offices, universities, and industries involved. Their flexibility and willingness to explore new approaches were essential to the success of this mission. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which are operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. L.M.S. and D.G. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CRT foundation under Grant No. 2018.2323 “Gaseous or rocky? Unveiling the nature of small worlds”. S.H. gratefully acknowledges CNES funding through the grant 837319. ABr was supported by the SNSA. S.G.S. acknowledge support from FCT through FCT contract nr. CEECIND/00826/2018 and POPH/FSE (EC). Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument ‘Alopeke obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal Number: GN/S-2021A-LP-105. ‘Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North (and/or South) telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a programme of NSF’s OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). A.C.C. and T.W. acknowledge support from STFC consolidated grant number ST/M001296/1. M.F. and C.M.P. gratefully acknowledge the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 65/19, 174/18). This project was supported by the CNES. unding for the Stellar Astrophysics Centre is provided by The Danish National Research Foundation (Grant agreement no.: DNRF106). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. Y.A. and M.J.H. acknowledge the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020_172746. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grants ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, PGC2018-098153-B-C31, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu-Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The MOC activities have been supported by the ESA contract no. 4000124370. S.C.C.B. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contracts nr. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004. X.B., S.C., D.G., M.F. and J.L. acknowledge their role as ESA-appointed CHEOPS science team members. P.C. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant Number 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation. Her participation in the programme has benefited this work. A.De. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project FOUR ACES, grant agreement no. 724427), and from the National Centre for Competence in Research “PlanetS” supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). The Belgian participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the PRODEX Program, and by the University of Liège through an ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. L.D. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Postdoctoral Researcher. This work was supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacão by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020, UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987, O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by national funds through FCT. B.-O.D. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-190080). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project FOUR ACES grant agreement No 724427). ZG was supported by the VEGA grant of the Slovak Academy of Sciences number 2/0031/22, and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency - the contract no. APVV-20-0148. M.G. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. C.X.H.’s work was funded by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council. K.G.I. is the ESA CHEOPS Project Scientist and is responsible for the ESA CHEOPS Guest Observers Programme. She does not participate in, or contribute to, the definition of the Guaranteed Time Programme of the CHEOPS mission through which observations described in this paper have been taken, nor to any aspect of target selection for the programme. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Region Ile de France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01) of the programme Investissements d’Avenir supervised by the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche. M.L. acknowledges support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant number PCEFP2_194576. P.M. acknowledges support from STFC research grant number ST/M001040/1. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17H04574, JP18H05439, JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR1761, the Astrobiology Center of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) (Grant Number AB031010). This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sanchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This work was also partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation (PI Queloz, grant number 327127). Acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grant PGC2018-098153-B-C33, as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. Gy.M.Sz. and Z.G. acknowledges the support of the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grant K-125015, a PRODEX Institute Agreement between the ELTE Eötvös Lorand University and the European Space Agency (ESA-D/SCI-LE-2021-0025), the Lendület LP2018-7/2021 grant of the Hungarian Academy of Science and the support of the city of Szombathely. V.V.G. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Research Associate.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
CRT Foundation2018.2323
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)837319
Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)CEECIND/00826/2018
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001296/1
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 65/19
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 174/18
Danish National Research FoundationDNRF106
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200020_172746
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)PGC2018-098153-B-C33
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098153-B-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)MDM-2017-0737
Unidad de Excelencia Maria de MaeztuUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)4000124370
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)724427
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
University of LiègeUNSPECIFIED
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/04434/2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)PP00P2-190080
European Research Council (ERC)724427
Slovak Academy of Sciences2/0031/22
Slovak Research and Development AgencyAPVV-20-0148
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-10-EQPX-29-01
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)PCEFP2_194576
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001040/1
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJCR1761
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanAB031010
Simons Foundation327127
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)K-125015
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)ESA-D/SCI-LE-2021-0025
Academy of Science (Hungary)LP2018-7/2021
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221121-712922500.27
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ID Code:117961
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Deposited On:03 Dec 2022 01:03
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