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Turbulent Transport of Dust Particles in Protostellar Disks: The Effect of Upstream Diffusion

Zhou, Tingtao and Deng, Hong-Ping and Chen, Yi-Xian and Lin, Douglas N. C. (2022) Turbulent Transport of Dust Particles in Protostellar Disks: The Effect of Upstream Diffusion. Astrophysical Journal, 940 (2). Art. No. 117. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac9bf6.

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We study the long-term radial transport of micron to millimeter-size grains in protostellar disks (PSDs) based on diffusion and viscosity coefficients measured from 3D global stratified-disk simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamic method. While gas drag tends to transport dust species radially inwards, stochastic diffusion can spread a considerable fraction of dust radially outwards (upstream) depending on the nature of turbulence. In gravitationally unstable disks, we measure a high radial diffusion coefficient D_r ∼ H²Ω with little dependence on altitude. This leads to strong and vertically homogeneous upstream diffusion in early PSDs. In the solar nebula, the robust upstream diffusion of micron to millimeter-size grains not only efficiently transports highly refractory micron-size grains (such as those identified in the samples of comet 81P/Wild 2) from their regions of formation inside the snow line out to the Kuiper Belt, but can also spread millimeter-size calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions formed close to the Sun to distances where they can be assimilated into chondritic meteorites. In disks dominated by magnetorotational instability, the upstream diffusion effect is generally milder, with a separating feature due to diffusion being stronger in the surface layer than in the midplane. This variation becomes much more pronounced if we additionally consider a quiescent midplane with lower turbulence and larger characteristic dust size due to nonideal MHD effects. This segregation scenario helps to account for the dichotomy of the spatial distribution of two dust populations as observed in scattered light and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array images.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Zhou, Tingtao0000-0002-1766-719X
Deng, Hong-Ping0000-0001-6858-1006
Chen, Yi-Xian0000-0003-3792-2888
Lin, Douglas N. C.0000-0001-5466-4628
Additional Information:We thank William Bethune, Hans Baehr, Zhaohuan Zhu, and Wenrui Xu for useful conversations. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful suggestions. We have benefited from many past discussions with Willy Kley and would like to dedicate this paper to his memory. Y.X.C. thanks Man Hoi Lee and Hong Kong University for their hospitality during the completion of this manuscript. T.Z. is supported by the Cecil and Sally Drinkward postdoc fellowship during this work.
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Cecil and Sally Drinkward FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20221212-795726500.12
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ID Code:118306
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:12 Jan 2023 18:13
Last Modified:12 Jan 2023 18:13

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