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Molecular Characterization of the Gastrula in the Turtle Emys orbicularis: An Evolutionary Perspective on Gastrulation

Coolen, Marion and Nicolle, Delphine and Plouhinec, Jean-Louis and Gombault, Aurélie and Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana and Menuet, Arnaud and Pieau, Calude and Mazan, Sylvie (2008) Molecular Characterization of the Gastrula in the Turtle Emys orbicularis: An Evolutionary Perspective on Gastrulation. PLoS ONE, 3 (7). e2676. ISSN 1932-6203. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:COOplosone08

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Abstract

Due to the presence of a blastopore as in amphibians, the turtle has been suggested to exemplify a transition form from an amphibian- to an avian-type gastrulation pattern. In order to test this hypothesis and gain insight into the emergence of the unique characteristics of amniotes during gastrulation, we have performed the first molecular characterization of the gastrula in a reptile, the turtle Emys orbicularis. The study of Brachyury, Lim1, Otx2 and Otx5 expression patterns points to a highly conserved dynamic of expression with amniote model organisms and makes it possible to identify the site of mesoderm internalization, which is a long-standing issue in reptiles. Analysis of Brachyury expression also highlights the presence of two distinct phases, less easily recognizable in model organisms and respectively characterized by an early ring-shaped and a later bilateral symmetrical territory. Systematic comparisons with tetrapod model organisms lead to new insights into the relationships of the blastopore/blastoporal plate system shared by all reptiles, with the blastopore of amphibians and the primitive streak of birds and mammals. The biphasic Brachyury expression pattern is also consistent with recent models of emergence of bilateral symmetry, which raises the question of its evolutionary significance.


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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002676DOIUNSPECIFIED
Additional Information:© 2008 Coolen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Received: February 13, 2008; Accepted: May 23, 2008; Published: July 16, 2008. We are grateful to Ferdinand Marletaz for its contribution to the experiments on Brachyury expression pattern and to Hans Meinhardt for critical reading and enlightening comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by funds from the Université Paris Sud, Université d'Orléans and CNRS. J.L P. and T.S.S. were recipients of PhD fellowships from the Ministère de la Recherche and M.C from CNRS. Conceived and designed the experiments: MC SM. Performed the experiments: MC DN JLP AG TSS. Analyzed the data: MC AM SM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CP. Wrote the paper: MC SM. Obtained turtles’ embryos: CP. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Supporting Information: Figure S1 Partial E. orbicularis Lim1, Brachyury, Otx2 and Otx5 sequences used as probes in this study. Found at: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002676.s001 (0.03 MB DOC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Université Paris SudUNSPECIFIED
Université d'OrléansUNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministère de la Recherche (France)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:COOplosone08
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:COOplosone08
Usage Policy:© 2008 Coolen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ID Code:11844
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:06 Oct 2008 21:52
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 00:23

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