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Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters Around Early-type M Dwarfs Based on Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite Data

Gan, Tianjun and Wang, Sharon X. and Wang, Songhu and Mao, Shude and Huang, Chelsea X. and Collins, Karen A. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Shporer, Avi and Zhu, Wei and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Belinski, Alexander A. and Ciardi, David R. and Evans, Phil and Girardin, Eric and Maslennikova, Nataliia A. and Mazeh, Tsevi and Panahi, Aviad and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Radford, Don J. and Schwarz, Richard P. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Wünsche, Anaël and Zucker, Shay (2023) Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters Around Early-type M Dwarfs Based on Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite Data. Astronomical Journal, 165 (1). Art. No. 17. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac9b12.

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We present an estimate of the occurrence rate of hot Jupiters (7 R_⊕ ≤ R_p ≤ 2 R_J, 0.8 ≤ P_b ≤ 10 days) around early-type M dwarfs based on stars observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) during its primary mission. We adopt stellar parameters from the TESS Input Catalog and construct a sample of 60,819 M dwarfs with 10.5 ≤ T_mag ≤ 13.5, effective temperatures 2900 ≤ T_eff ≤ 4000 K, and stellar masses 0.45 ≤ M_* ≤ 0.65 M_⊙. We conduct a uninformed transit search using a detection pipeline based on the box least square search and characterize the searching completeness through an injection and recovery experiment. We combine a series of vetting steps including light centroid measurement, odd/even and secondary eclipse analysis, rotation and transit period synchronization tests as well as inspecting the ground-based photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging observations. Finally, we find a total of nine planet candidates, all of which are known TESS objects of interest. We obtain an occurrence rate of 0.27% ± 0.09% for hot Jupiters around early-type M dwarfs that satisfy our selection criteria. Compared with previous studies, the occurrence rate of hot Jupiters around early-type M dwarfs is smaller than all measurements for FGK stars, although they are consistent within 1σ–2σ. There is a trend that the occurrence rate of hot Jupiters has a peak at G dwarfs and falls toward both hotter and cooler stars. Combining results from transit, radial velocity, and microlensing surveys, we find that hot Jupiters around early-type M dwarfs possibly show a steeper decrease in the occurrence rate per logarithmic semimajor axis bin (dN/d log_(10)a) when compared with FGK stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Wang, Sharon X.0000-0002-6937-9034
Wang, Songhu0000-0002-7846-6981
Mao, Shude0000-0001-8317-2788
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Zhu, Wei0000-0003-4027-4711
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Belinski, Alexander A.0000-0003-3469-0989
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Evans, Phil0000-0002-5674-2404
Girardin, Eric0000-0002-5443-3640
Maslennikova, Nataliia A.0000-0003-4147-5195
Mazeh, Tsevi0000-0002-3569-3391
Panahi, Aviad0000-0001-5850-4373
Pozuelos, Francisco J.0000-0003-1572-7707
Radford, Don J.0000-0002-3940-2360
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Wünsche, Anaël0000-0002-6176-9847
Zucker, Shay0000-0003-3173-3138
Additional Information:This work is partly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (grant No. 12133005). This research uses data obtained through the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the TAP member institutes. The authors acknowledge the Tsinghua Astrophysics High-Performance Computing platform at Tsinghua University for providing computational and data storage resources that have contributed to the research results reported within this paper. A.A.B. and N.A.M acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation under grant 075-15-2020-780 (N13.1902.21.0039). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. We acknowledge the use of TESS public data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. We acknowledge the use of TESS High Level Science Products (HLSP) produced by the Quick-Look Pipeline (QLP) at the TESS Science Office at MIT, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC; Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China12133005
Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation075-15-2020-780
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20230103-818063100.50
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:118641
Deposited By: Research Services Depository
Deposited On:07 Feb 2023 18:58
Last Modified:07 Feb 2023 18:58

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